Answers for review - Midterm 1

Answers for review - Midterm 1 - 1 Soils are 3 dimentional...

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1. Soils are 3 dimentional, vertically differenciated, at or near earths surface, contain minerals & organic matter, and are formed by chemical, physical, and biologic processes. Soil “denotes the unconsolidated, thin, variable layer of mineral and organic material, usually biologically active, that covers most of the earth’s land surface.” Pg. 3 2. A Pedon is a natural soil body (not dug up or disturbed) with its characteristic layers with a minimum volume a surface area of 1 square meter (1m²). However far down you observe the pedon you will assume that the soil beneath the last horizon continues to the center of the earth. However, that depth can vary. depth of 1.5 m, (about the smallest size a pedon can be to contain all the properties we need in order to classify and study the soil individual pg. 8 ) unless rock is encountered.” Pg. 4 “At the upper part of the pedon, most influenced by rainfall, roots, and micro-organisms, is the solum.” Pg. 8. A Pedon is a 3-D body, a soil individual, vertically differentiated into horizons 1 square meter (1m²) and a depth that varies according to where the geological material begins. “At some depth below the surface, the soil changes to parent material and unweathered geological material.” Pg. 8 A soil profile “is a 2-D gradation or sequence of a soil property—for example, temperature profile or pH profile. A soil profile is the appearance of a pedon’s vertical face or section.” Pg424 A soil profile is the side view of a pedon without volume showing the horizons from the surface down. 2:9 3. The main properties associated with the 9 Master Horizons are: 2:14 pg. 290 O- Organic horizon A- Mineral horizon with decomposed organic matter (OM) E- Mineral horizon leached (eluviated) of clays, OM carbonates, Fe, Al, and other mobile constituents B- Mineral horizon of alteration or accumulation of materials (illuviated) from overlying horizons C- Layer (not bedrock) little affected by soil formation R- Hard bedrock W- Water (liquid or frozen) M- Human-made layer 9eg. Asphalt, land fill liner) L- Horizon of biologically produced material deposited in water. 4. 2:14 Two main properties of an Ap horizon are that (1) it is a horizon that contains decomposing organic matter (A) and (2) that horizon has been tilled as indicated by the subordinate horizon p; The main properties of the Bt horizon are (1) this horizon has accumulated materials from the above horizon such as clay, Fe, Al, humus, carbonate, gypsum, or Si, and (2) it is a horizon that contains the illuvial accumulation of silicate clay in particular. Bss horizons are distinct in that they (1) contain accumulated materials from the above horizon such as clay, Fe, Al, humus, carbonate, gypsum or Si, and (2) it is a horizon that contains the illuvial accumulation of sesquioxides. Sesquioxides
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This note was uploaded on 01/05/2011 for the course SSC 41020 taught by Professor Randalsouthard during the Fall '10 term at UC Davis.

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Answers for review - Midterm 1 - 1 Soils are 3 dimentional...

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