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Lesson 02 - Lesson 02 son 1001 Building Construction...

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Unformatted text preview: Lesson 02 _ son 1001 Building Construction Foun‘datlfln Loads Foundation must support these loads . Foundations and Site Preparation - Dead Loads _ Chaplfl' #2 — Structure and al peITnanentfii-iures such a the air ooml'rtioring Live Leads - P95 29 - 3U — Any load that can change, such as finishing-s: equipment, people, environmental Rain mild snow Loads — Act prurient; ocwnnerct 1ill-find Loads _ Apply Mrimntall dowmmrd and uplift hacls Sell and Water Pressures Etu oyent Forces Thrusts transferred from support members Ground moirern enl {Earthquakes} Foundation Loads Foundation Settlement Unircrm or umcrcmiai settlement? Yet, Foundation must meettheee requirements c . - _' * D'fl lial I mt new 5i“? Soil - Sefe I'rom etmoturel failure ' - Sefe from settlement Technically Feasible Economical . _ . - oirrmmiai smicmcm duels octane Fil Practicai to Build "_ Soils - Characteristics - Shear resistance "‘ TYPES Elf SID-“5 — Frictional soils {tapered emanation] I Grain! -— Root: {solid} . Sand - ail: _ Soils — Cohesive soils {verttai excavatimt] - Ecutder nwc hands to its) ' “a" I Gobble [lift with single hmd} manure”: ' Gm“ flit”t Wilt- ihumh 3““ WNW} - Dimensional Stebil win. water EDHtEd't‘l I - Sand {See but can't pick up} — Stable ll‘t' - Sitt {genules (3.002" to 11.004108") - Olaf {platelets emeller Itien eifl} - Peat, hop: soils. etc. {Can‘t support. foundation} Soils - Characteristics Soils - Testing . Drainage _ Large voids _ good drainage - Fin-$233“? Exploration and Soil Testing ‘ Clean Gravel . No greater than El Feet reach or backhoe - Coarse Sand . Learn ulster lame. soil straw. coheslmnoss . Gel lab sample-s _ Small voids — adequate drainage _ Tm Boflngs ‘ M0“ 53mm - Drive sawlingtuhe into soil * 51H * Lean water table, soil strata, cohesiveness - Gel lab samples — Negligible 1.I'oiu'.ts - poor drainage * Lflfid hfifif'fig ”Flat“? lflflum NM} . Clay Excavation Excavation- Slope Support Purposes for Excavation - Benched - Stair Steps - Uncover suitable soil . - Homo-«rs topsoll or post ' Shfietlng - Temporary.r support we 5 . Get below frost line — No1 requlrecl When: . - Rock — AMI-d soul heave when it freezes ~ Coheswe soils _ _ - Room Tor Dent nea - Addition of underground spaces - Types of Sheeting — Basements ~ Soldier Beam and tagging _ Parking Garagfl - Sheet piling — typical seawalls x Filun'ngpl _ can: in plane and dug ott - Soil mixing — fierves as shooting and banner for chem-cat I' note ocnetraljm Excavation- Slope Support Excavation- Slope Support - Sheeting _ . . -- - Sheeting — fiddler Beams _ _. _ - Slurry Wall and Lagging ' " - Sheet piling - typical semoalls Exoavation— Slope Support - Sheeting .._ _ .. - Sheeting — Soll t‘l'lltdl'tg — Genres as sheetlng ' - I I _I — Braclng and harrierl'or chemlcal ivveter =" . I " - Chill-SIM etretion ' Riki-“'3 pm - Tisoacks Excavation- Dewatering Foundations - Required for dry excavation - Primary.r factors that affect foundation type _ Sump; — Subsurface eoi and groundwater conditions . in pit; a ham flmamim — structural requlrements. Including foundation loads. . In wiellg surrounding mm” bFuilcEp-g configurations. and depth — ' ros ine' - Bern'er Iirirellsl - Where pumping will adverser effect 5 til f t srond' 5 1' econ arv acors u r u ing — Construction methods. including access fl'td working space - Environmental factors. including noiee. traffic. and dlsposal of earth and water - Eiuilling codes and regulations — Impact on adlasent property — Time available for cmtstmctim — Construction risks * Drivcrl down past lion-polrrlcetilc soil Foundations - Shallowr Foundations - Deep - Slab on grade - Caissons - poured - Most popular is monolithic i - Eloll caissons spread at base to provide looting on bed rest: - Socketed caieeoria are drilled i'lto dildo-cit and transfer lead through friction - Cravdspase — Tvpleel when frost—line Is above fourteot * Files— driven ' Basement — End hearing pile is - Typical 1iiitter'i frost-line ie Izletov.r drlven to bedrock tourteet - Frictlonel pile Ie driven till it Eli Hr. Foundations — Friction Piles Seismic Base Isolation Timber Piles — 10—35 tons support - “Rubber Feet" for structure, set upon foundation, ll td ' rth k . Steel “H" Piles — 30-120 tons support a ow moveme" “"9 ea qua es mm. . an Steel pipe Piles — (later filled with concrete) — 50-150 tons support Precast Concrete Piles — (no corrosion) — 60- 120 tons support Sitecast Concrete Piles — {various methods) 50- 120 tons support Underpinning Retaining Walls - Strengthen and stabilize existing foundations - Specialized per application — Enlargement — New foundations insertedfpouredlinjected below existing — Soil strengthening Waterproofing - Drainage Waterproofing - Membranes Sumps - Applied in conjunction with Drainage — Plastic Drain pipe at foaoter, under porous backfill _ Asphalt — Synthetic Rubber Drain pipes below slab — Bentonite clay Dampproofi ng — Sprayed or rolled water . Waterstops resistant coating on outside of wall Basement Insulation - Interior — Typically batt or foam insulation between metal or wood furring strips secured to wall — Covered with protective layer such as paneling or drywall - Exterior — Foam or glass fiber boards (typically 2'4“ thick) — Propriety foam board with drainage mat available — Backfilled Backfilling - Open fast draining material — Aids dewatering - Controlled Low-Strength Material (CLSM) — eliminates settling It supports structure — Hinders drainage Designing Foundations - These items increase the cost of a foundation — Building below water table — Building close to an existing structure — Increasing the load beyond the capability of a shallow foundation Shallow Frost-Protected Foundafions Imus." AWHMIWM pin-mm Up-Dolwn Construction Foundation Design and the Building Because public safety is involved, building codes contain numerous provisions relating to excavations and foundations The International Building Code® defines 7 which soil types are constdered satisfactory for bearing the weight of buildings — and establishes a set of requirements for - subsurface exploration, - soil testing, - and submission of soil reports to the local building inspector It goes on to specify the methods of engineering design that may be used for the foundations Foundation Design and the Building It sets forth maximum load bearing values for soils that may be assumed in the absence of detailed test procedures The International Building Code® establishes minimum dimensions for footings. caissons, piles, and foundation walls and contains lengthy discussions relating to the installation of piles and caissons and the drainage and waterproofing of substructures It also requires engineering design of retaining walls Assignment . Page 83 Review Questions 1, 3, & 5 Exercise #2 If you do not understand a question, email me at [email protected] or through my.PHCC.edu ...
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