Bio what to know

Bio what to know - Bio112 Equation Sheet TYPES OF CELLS...

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Unformatted text preview: Bio112 Equation Sheet TYPES OF CELLS CELL WALLS Before the midterm: You should be able to characterize the differences and similarities between Gram negative and positive cell walls. o You must know the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types including cell wall types, organelles, genome organization and some brief examples of metabolic differences. CELL MEMBRANES AND FLUIDITY OPERONS – a set of coordinately controlled genes You should be able to describe the purpose of a cell wall and identify factors that affect the function of the cell wall. ie. Penicillin and lysozyme. DNA You need to be able to distinguish between phenotype and genotype. What is DNA? o For the exam you must be able to describe membrane fluidity, how fluidity is modulated, phospholipids and membrane proteins. MEMBRANES ARE SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE • Diffusion occurs as molecules flow down their concentration gradient • Molecules are in different concentrations on one side of the membrane as they are in the other • A molecule will always naturally travel from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration FROM GENE TO PROTEIN What is a protein? in bacteria. Allows for one regulatory step that controls multiple genes required in the same pathway. REGULATING GENE EXPRESSION – the levels of gene expression are tightly controlled in many situations by: • RNA stability • Promoter strength GENETIC VARIATION After the midterm: o Genetic variation is important to possibly give growth advantages to different organisms – survival of the fittest o Different ways to get genetic variation in prokaryotes Mutation – errors during DNA replication • Induced mutations by mutagens Large scale mutations • Transposons – jumping genes that are mobile elements in the genome o can insert almost anywhere in the genome • Viral Infection o Know the difference between lytic and lysogenic life cycle of viruses • Bacterial conjugation o Transfer of plasmids between prokaryotes o Plasmids contain extra genes that often confer special characteristics • Mutation by recombination OVERCOMING PERMEABILITY BARRIERS • • Transport proteins are integral membrane proteins that span across both leaflets of the membrane Transport proteins are specific to their cargo CENTRAL DOGMA OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Information flows from DNA to RNA to protein Information flows from DNA to RNA via transcription Information flows from RNA to protein via translation You should be able to describe transcription and translation in detail. You should know what defines a gene and what a gene looks like. You should also know the structure of DNA and protein as well as their relationship using the Central Dogma. We’ve helped over 50,000 students get better grades since 1999! Need help for exams? Check out our classroom prep sessions - customized to your exact course - at For the Exam: Know the process and features of conjugation, transformation and phage infection Describe the classes of mutations and how they affect protein function Draw and describe the process of DNA replication and repair NUTRITION AND METABOLISM NUTRIENTS are defined as light or chemicals taken from a cell’s environment • LITHOAUTOTROPHS Some examples: Methanogens Nitrifying bacteria Sulfur oxidizers Iron reducing bacteria All use an inorganic energy source PHOTOTROPHS w Phototrophic metabolism is the use of light as a source of energy for growth There are three common classifications that we use in this course o Lithoautotroph – inorganic energy source, inorganic carbon source and inorganic electron source o Photoautotroph – light as an energy source, inorganic carbon source, inorganic electron source o Heterotroph – organic molecule is used as an energy source, carbon source and electron source The common terminal electron acceptors are shown below Aerobic Anaerobic GENE RESPONSES CHANGES: • TO ENVIRONMENTAL Operon Theory (1961) o Operon is a unit of DNA composed of specific genes, plus a promoter and/or operator, which act in unison to regulate the response of the structural genes to environment changes LAC OPERON: HETEROTROPHIC METABOLISM TEA O2 Product H2O • SO42Fe3+ NO3CO2 H2S Fe2+ NO2-, N2 CH4, CH3COO- • Organisms that are not able to synthesize cell components from carbon dioxide as sole carbon source Heterotrophic organisms need to use organic sources of electrons and carbon to generate ATP and NADH to perform cell work For the exam: ETC The electron transport chain of respiration functions to couple the energy released from the falling electron with the pumping of protons to establish a chemiosmotic gradient across the cellular membrane. Identify the different types of bacteria based on their energy requirements/oxygen requirements Outline the different classes of respiration and the bacteria that use them You must know the principles behind oxidative phosphorylation, substrate level phosphorylation and fermentation SENSING AND RESPONDING TO THE ENVIRONMENT For the exam: Outline the logic of a bacterial operon and how it is regulated You must be able to describe how bacteria sense their environment and how they respond by altering the expression of certain genes You must know the lac operon and how it is regulated You must know heterocyst formation in Anabena and endospore formation in Gram positive bacteria CHEMOTAXIS requires the cell to move and this mobility is achieved by the action of flagella Our Course Booklets - free at prep sessions - are the “Perfect Study Guides.” ...
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