Brief for Aff Debate

Brief for Aff Debate - Argument Briefs- Affirmative Coms...

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Argument Briefs- Affirmative Coms 250 Skiles 10 May 2010 The First Affirmative Constructive (1AC) I. Observation One: Significant Harm A. Significant Harms Aftergood, Stephen. “Nuclear Weapon Effects.” Federation of American Scientists (1998). 1-7. RAL Aftergood 1998 The energy of a nuclear explosion is transferred to the surrounding medium in three distinct forms: blast; thermal radiation; and nuclear radiation. The distribution of energy among these three forms will depend on the yield of the weapon, the location of the burst, and the characteristics of the environment. For a low altitude atmospheric detonation of a moderate sized weapon in the kiloton range, the energy is distributed roughly as follows: 50% as blast; 35% as thermal radiation; made up of a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, including infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light and some soft x-ray emitted at the time of the explosion; and 15% as nuclear radiation; including 5% as initial ionizing radiation consisting chiefly of neutrons and gamma rays emitted within the first minute after detonation, and 10% as residual nuclear radiation. Residual nuclear radiation is the hazard in fallout B. Nuclear Winter Jayaprakash, N.D. “Non-proliferation and the Challenge of Nuclear Disarmament”. Dissident Voice (2010) . 1-5. RAL Jayaprakash 2010 Studies on the environmental consequences of nuclear war leading to what is called a “Nuclear Winter”, were first carried out about 25 years ago. These studies posited that worldwide climatic cooling from stratospheric smoke would cause agricultural collapse that threatened the majority of the human population with starvation and untimely death. The first general circulation model simulations were conducted in the USSR. Subsequent investigations in the mid and late 1980s by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the International Council of Scientific Unions supported those initial studies and shed further light on the phenomena involved. Studies that are more recent show that even small arsenals threaten people far removed from the sites of conflict because of environmental changes triggered by smoke from firestorms. In fact, modern climate models confirm that the 1980s predictions of nuclear winter effects were, if anything, underestimates. According to recent estimates, even a regional
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Brief for Aff Debate - Argument Briefs- Affirmative Coms...

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