TCP_in_the_datacenter_WP_110

TCP_in_the_datacenter_WP_110 - White Paper InfiniBand and...

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Mellanox Technologies Inc. 2900 Stender Way, Santa Clara, CA 95054 Tel: 408-970-3400 Fax: 408-970-3403 www.mellanox.com 1 White Paper Document Number 2008WP Mellanox Technologies Inc Rev 1.10 InfiniBand and TCP in the Data Center 1.0 Preface The InfiniBand Architecture is designed to allow streamlined operation of enterprise and internet data centers by creating a fabric that allows low latency, high bandwidth clustering, communica- tion and storage traffic. The TCP protocol stack is ubiquitous as the Internet and is vital to the continued success of LANs, MANs, WANs and the Internet worldwide. While ideal for WAN and LAN applications, TCP imposes serious operating penalties when used within a controlled envi- ronment such as today’s Internet and enterprise data centers. This paper explores TCP limitations and discusses how they can be seamlessly overcome by exploiting the low latency hardware transport of InfiniBand to facilitate creation of N-Tier data centers. 2.0 What is an “N-Tier” Data Center? Data centers are frequently described as having a ‘3-tier architecture’ with little or no explanation of what this really means. A 3-tier architecture is basically an extension of a standard client-server (two-tier) architecture which introduces a set of applications servers between the client and the backend database servers. This middle tier of applications servers provides the data center with the ability to track users and insures the reliability of transactions, even in the presence of equip- ment and software process failures. This basic 3-tier architecture can be extended to what is called an ‘n-tier’ structure by partitioning the infrastructure to separate independent components. This modularity provides better performance, security, scalability, and provides support for heteroge- neous hardware and database environments. In addition, n-tier architectures are able to improve reliability, availability, and serviceability versus a simple two-tier architecture. 3.0 Transport Performance within the N-Tier Data Center 3.1 TCP Performance has not Kept Pace with Data Center Requirements The benefits of an n-tier architecture do not come for free. First of all, each tier of the data center requires additional equipment, software, and creates complexity due to the larger number of units. The TCP protocol suite is designed to provide an end to end connection between the client and the ultimate server responding to client requests. However, inherent limitations in the IPV4 address
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InfiniBand and TCP in the Data Center Transport Performance within the N-Tier Data Center 2 Mellanox Technologies Inc Rev 1.10 space require that TCP is terminated by proxies running Network Address Translation (NAT) that results in multiple TCP connections being spliced together. Also, the modular nature of the N-Tier architecture spawns additional separate TCP/IP connections between each tier. Thus, what was originally implemented as a simple end to end connection between client and server now consists
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This note was uploaded on 01/07/2011 for the course CSE 100 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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TCP_in_the_datacenter_WP_110 - White Paper InfiniBand and...

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