ESL and EFL Grammar

ESL and EFL Grammar - PRONOUNS Pronouns replace nouns or...

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Unformatted text preview: PRONOUNS Pronouns replace nouns or phrases. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND 3 ADJECTIVES 3 Personal pronouns substitute for specific 3 people, things, or ideas. They agree in gender 3 and number with the noun they replace. Jack Smith > he the actress 9 she 3 my room i it crocodiles > they 3 i ' Subiect pronouns replace nouns that 3 ‘ perform the action of the verb. 3 My wife and I live in Boston. > 3 We live in Boston. 3 i 0 Obiect pronouns replace nouns that ESL GRAMMAR AND EFL The teacher gave John a puppy. t The teacher gave him a puppy. They also replace nouns in prepositional phrases (see below): This story is about us. 3 - Reflexive pronouns refer back to the subject of the verb. She washes her hands by herself. o Possessive adiectives come before a noun and show ownership. This is your book. - Possessive pronouns stand alone and show ownership. SENTENCES ritSlHVl-lClMHVdS A sentence expresses a thought. Sentences make a statement or ask a question. A complete English sentence has a subiect 3 and a verb, usually in that order. PARTS OF A SENTENCE Subiect A noun or a pronoun; the person or thing E . . _. 3 3 Negating a sentence With no auxniary verb 3 3 1. Change the sentence to an equivalent l emphatic form by changing the conjugated 3 verb to a twoiword verb: the same tense of doing the action of the verb. Mary plays. The man in the block suit is singing. The black cat likes fish and pretzels. Sometimes the subject is idiomatic, and 3 does not stand for any person or thing. Negating forms of the verb to be .- Insert not after the verb. She is happy. t She is not happy. He was a firefighter in the 805. > He was not a firefighter in the 805. to do + base form of the verb. likes > does like . . - t - - - It is windy, It is four o'clock. swam t did SWim receive the action of the verb That IS my chair. > That chair is mine. Verb 3 They see $30353 ) They do see 53mg- The action at the sentence, 3 2. Insert not after do, does, or did: Subiect Obiect Reflexive Possessive Possessive Mary piays‘ does iike , does not like Pronoun Pronoun Pronoun Adiective Pronoun The man in the biack suit is singing did swim t did not swim _ The black cat likes fish and pretzels. They do see stars. r lst I me myself my mine Verbs can be simple or compound. They do not see stars. 0 Simple verbs consist ofone word: . Example 2nd you you yourself your I yours SWim. does. 0m, W03 _ She went to Florida last month. t '5 l - A compound verb has two or more pieces: she did 9010 Honda rest month. s 3 3, he him himself 3 his ‘ his Will have gone. 15 flying. would be botlmg She did not go to Florida last month. 3 .5 : Compound verbs start With one or more 3 "' auxiliary verbs. In "will have gone,” will YES/No GUESTIONS 3rd she her herself her hers and have are auxiiiary, Statements can be converted into questions. ‘ 5:”‘2'3 - "2's :5 You will |earn.>>Willyou learn? it it itself its its .rars Direct Object Fish swim. 9 Do fish swim? The person or thing that receives the action of if me sentence has an auxiliary verb 3 151' we as ourselves our ours me verb- ll “Rally TOHOWS The Vem- Move the first auxiliary verb to the beginning _ ‘ He loves his mother very much. of the sentence. 1 E l i IQGVE 0 9m ’0 “W ieaChei. Ican scream loudl > Can I scream loudly? V 2nd on on ourselves 3 our 'ours . y' . ' ; {33. y y y 3 y f y Indirect Object lhave been running. > Havel been running? : i . , , The person or thing to whom or for whom the if m in V rb~ a form of m be , . 3rd the them h _ e ma e is 3 i y t emsewes . them thelrs acne” was performed Move the verb to the beginning of the 3 3 I told the children my favorite story. sentence. 3 INDEFINITE PROUNOUNS lwill send Marie 0 lelter. lam 0 frog > Am 3 a frog? Indefinite pronouns refer to unsaecified people, things, or places. LUCY mOde her m°lher ‘3 bmcem Mark is very boring to talk to, r Referring to Referring to Referring to In these examples, “my favorite story, a letter," and “a bracelet” are all direct objects. ls Mark very boring to talk to? r SPARKCHARTSX People Things places Example It the sentence has no auxiliary verb 3 NEGATING SENTENCES 1. Convert the sentence to the equwalent someone ' . ' ' ‘ - ' ‘ somethmg somewhere someone 15 waitingfor you Statements can be negated. 3 emphatic form by replacmg the verb by do, somebody outstde. lam sWimming. » I am not swrmming. does, or did + base form. as abOVE. I like to swim. b i do not like to swim. 2, Move do, does, or did to the beginning. anyone anything anywhere I don’t have anywhere to go. Negm'w G’semense “mm 9” aux'l'a’y Verb He “*3 0 Cheese 50ndWiCh- 9' anybody Insert not arter the first auxtliary verb. He did eat» a Cheese sandwich, s everyone we COT“an " are "0* coming Did he eat a cheese sandwich? g everything everywhere He always loses everything. W'“ have Stem 1' W'“ m" hGVe Slepl Marina smokes like a chimney. r A?) % everybody . . . . . > "‘ .2 TheY hGVe been WGShlng Smile} ‘3 Marina does smoke like a chimney. r .g EC: no one . Nobody believes your silly They have “0* been WOSW‘Q dISheS- Does Marina smoke like a chimney? fig g z 3 b d nothmg nowhere r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r ~ ~ r r r r r ~ ~ ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' - ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ~ 3‘? cu g < 3 no 0 y Story‘ WHO? WHAT? WHERE? WHEN? WHY? HOW. . g E 2 L- g ‘ DEMONSTRA IVES ASKING FOR INFORMATION .5 E 8 {g i Q j 3 _ I _ e e ‘ To ask for information, begin with a question word. The rest of the sentence has the same structure ;_- f. E "m" ‘9 3 Demonstrative adiectives and pronouns pomt out which object the speaker means. They agree in as a yes/n0 question. Who 35 your mend? Whom does he love? ,2 2 rahg u, . . . . . . . . . - _ » _ l .. -- e : “umber W'th the Obiemsl bemg 'dent'f'e‘j' and vary depend'”g 0” dmame from the Speaker- - When asking for additonal information about a noun, place the noun after the question word. 3 3 a 3 3‘ 3 o This, These (adj): Point out objects close to the speaker. . . The rest of the sentence is like a yes/no question: How many shoes do you own? This square is green. These squares are blue. I that f 3 - That, Those (adj): Point out objects far from the speaker. Quesfion word Asking form ExampIe g That square is red. Those squares are yellow. C31 5 0 This, That, These, Those : Demonstrative ronouns $4759 . , ._ \ ' that remace the objects (prom p I I.- g Who a person, subiect of the verb Who IS that boy? a g . c o These 5 uares are darker than those. h” h . . 9 "l 3 q t 15 t 859 Whom 8 Demon. Object of the verb W'hom dld she see? a g C c 3 O X . Q ‘- 3 and Whose gugjeergggfiggvzvyger Of the Whose money is on the table? 2 g 3 Preposmons relate nouns to other words. Coniunctions connect words or phrases. g ‘ . . 3 3 PREPDSITIONS , CONJUNCTIONS What a person. subiect of the verb What IS on sale today? 3 3 A preposition + noun or preposition + obiect '3 Coordinating conjunctions Wh. a person or thing, one of a . . . 3 10h . - W'hlch mo vie do on want to see? 3 pronoun makes a prepositional phrase that 3 Join two parallel-structured pieces. few Cho'cesmr the sums“ L y 3 acts as an adjective or an adverb to modify 3 and similarity You and I are friends. a erson or thin to refine . ‘ 3 another part of the sentence. ‘ or choice Iwam wde or iuice‘ What thgsumect of theg’verb TVhat color 18 your backpack? prepositionqi phrases indicate , _ _ 3 but opposition She is tired but can’t sleep. d, t, t d C me the l 1. Location or direction: on the table, across 3 5° Tesu't She W05 hUl‘ler 50 She Ole- What kind of 23b?e§%évti'e (Saris r What kind offood do you want? ‘ the street, through the woods Subordinating conjunctions . lam going to the museum. Indicates the relationship of a dependent Where a place Where did you go? 3 2. Time: before the party, for half an hour, piece to the fes’l Oithe sentence. 3 during the summer, since 6 P.M., on Monday 3 1. Time: before, after, when, while, until when a time When will hefinayy get married? v 3. Other relationships: She plays with dolls. They got married after She br0ke her leg. 1 They leftthe restaurant without me. 2. Cause: because, since, as Why a reason Why did they leave so soon? i brought this present for you. 3 i want a cookie because they taste good. On weekends she works asa waitress. 3. Conditionality: it, unless, whether H a way or manner at doing H did Du lose our hat? That book is from the library. 3 lwon’t go unless you come with me. Ow something 0w y y ' Everyone was happy except him. 4. Unexpectedness: although, even though . a He came instead of his wife. Although he was tired, he cooked dinner. HOW many a number How manyfrlends do you have- CONTINUED ON OTHER SIDE i/ i ill ( SPAR KCHARTS' 03— vowel and consonant: shop > shopped, occur > occurred <1-="— , . _ Form past tense (usually base form + ed) 0 ‘ Past participle: Same as stmple past for regular verbs. a I m— 3 Present participle: Add -ing to base form: play i playing 3 2 van, rams i - Drop final -e: dance > dancing. But keep -e it the verb ends 2 Iate. laid not eat. Did 1 eat? Did 1 not eat? (rare) 'T ——__m l 'n '95: see ' 599mg 1 g” I didn’t eat. —Yes, I did. Didn’t I eat? 0 =0 3 - Change final -ie to -ying: die > dying, lie > lying ; i7, 8 ___——® 3 0 Double the last consonant as above: ship i shipping You ate. You did not eat. Did you eat? Did you not eat? (rare) :_ 8 ‘ IRREGULAR VERBs: You didn’t eat; —No, you didn’t. Didn’t you eat? :2 ——‘r 3 to BE’ to HAVE’ to Do' to so 1 He ate. He did not eat. Did he eat? Did he not eat? (rare) it _"‘ ' 1 He didn’t eat. —Yes, he did. Didn’t he eat? — ‘— r 77 777 __ st Contractions simple Past z _“ Use An interrupted past action or state: Iwas sleeping when you called. 03 ———-——oo ‘lst I am I'm I was Q —'\ 2nd you are you're you were Form present tense of to be + -ing form of verb 0) he is he’s he was 3 3rd she is she's she was 3 ‘2,: it is it's it was Iwas eating. I was not eating. Was I eating? Was I not eating? 3' E- : ist we are we're we were 5 Iwasn’t eating. —No, I wasn’t. Wasn’t I eating? 3 o °‘. 2nd you are you‘re you were U . 2 ‘0 i\ o- - ~ 9 9 2 g .5 as 3rd they are theym they were 8 You were eating. You were not) eating. Were you eating. Were you’not eating. e U E u, Q. You werent eating. ~Yes, you were. Weren t you eating? a g g m 0; past participle: been present participle: being 2 E v 3 I have been to China. You are being difficult. H . He was not eating. Was he eating? Was he not eating? v a - q, e was eating. , . , , . g g B 3 3 3 Ln 3 He wasn t eating. eNo, he wasn t. Wasn t he eating. 8 E .9 3 2° «3 3 q) cu © Q d ‘5 as r\ .15 ‘ gm E E; 3! no Use Experiences at an unspecified time in the past: Ihave been to Casablanca twice. o E An action that started in the past and is still in progress now: John has lived hereforfive years. 0 = Q... o ': L.) <( V') O <( — D. ’erbs show actions, feelings, or states of being. - Actions: l swim in the sea. She ate seven apples. ‘ You have been driving for an hour. - Feelings: Rosie likes music. The rabbit wanted more food. 1 He has hated onions all his life. 3 - States of being: The teacher is sick. Dan became a dancer. TYPES OF VERB TENSES 3 Simple Tenses 3 Oneeword tenses. English has only two simple tenses: ‘ present and past. i saw a movie yesterday. ‘ Compound Tenses PRESENT TIME Use A finite action happening in the present: Ibuy milk. Then I drive home. A habitual action: He likes shopping. Iwalk to work on Tuesdays. A fact or an abstract action: What happens when you die? Form With I, you, we, they: use base form With he, she, it: use base form + s Multiplevword tenses. English has ten compound tenses. .. I eat we eat (See Verb Tenses, right.) The verbs to be and to have and 3 5 ‘bu' "an you em 3 to do act as auxiliary verbs. Will you see a movie tonight? § he eats ' ' ' 7 Perfect Tenses n' h they eat . a, s e eats 0 have seen; had been swimming; will have spoken . a 3 Tenses that involve have, has, or had + a past participle. 3 g r ' 3 English has six perfect tenses. An action in a perfect tense Vi Ido not eat, Do 1 eat? Do 1 not eat? {,are) i exerts an influence on a later state or action. l have seen that I eat- I don’t eat. _Yes, I do. Don’t I eat? i movie already, so i don't want to see it tonight. ‘ : Continuous Tenses (also known as Progressive Tenses) You eat You do not eat. Do you eat? Do you not eat? (rare) I' 0 are watching; had been swimming; will be flying t ' You don’t eat. —No, you don’t. Don’t you eat? 3' Tenses that end with a conjugated form of to be + ~an form i of the verb. English has six continuous tenses. Continuous 3 He eats He does not eat. Does he eat? Does he not eat? (rare) 3 tenses describe actions in progress. l have been seeing too 3 ' He doesn’t eat. —Yes, he does. Doesn’t he eat? many movies lately. i l Use An action in progess right now: Emma is petting the dog. l AUXili°_'Y Verbs' also known as helping Ve'l’sr Stand before l An action in progress in the general present: Iam reading that book. i the mam verb.and Change the “me Ofme actlon' or the speak 3 An action planned for the near future: He isflying to Paris tomorrow. : er’s perspective toward the action. The presence of auxtliary 3 ': verbs in a sentence changes the way we form questions and 3 . ‘3 negate the sentence. (See also Sentences, on the other side.) i U, Form present lense 0H0 be + ""9 form Ofverb 3 There are two types of auxiliary verbs. 3 Verb Forms ,' 1. Forms of to be (be, am, are, is, was, were, been, being), g ‘ 3° ha“: more! hosr hud' huvmgl' and i° d° (do! doesr did! I am eating. I am not eating. Am I eating? Am I not eating? . one, oing 3 o y . . . _ , , i ? 2. So-called modal verbs: will, would, can, could, must, may, E I m eating 1m net eatmg' NO’ 1m nOt' Aren t I eatmg. might, shall, should. 5 l ‘ VI ' l i 9 You are eating. you are net,eatm.g' Are you eating? Are you not eating? 3 - 0- You arent eating. 3 Most verbs have five forms: (1) base form, (2) infinitve ‘(3)simple past, (4) past participle, and (5) presen ‘ participle, which is commonly known as the -ing form. You’re eating. —Yes, you are. Aren’t you eating? You’re not eating. He is not eating. He isn’t eating. He’s not eating. He is eating. He’s eating. Is he eating? —No, he’s not. Is he not eating? Isn’t he eating? Base form: The dictionary form . The base form of the verb "to talk~ is talk. to be r be. 3 Infinitive: to + base form: to be, to see, to read 3 Simple post: Add -ed or -d to base form. talk > talked move i moved invent > invented Change final -y to -ied: try i tried. Keep the -y if it is pre- ; ceded by a vowel: play i played Z Double the last letter of short verbs that end in a single PAST TIME Use A completed past action: Matt broke his leg. A past habitual action or state of being: Iplayed chess when I was young. he Form have or has + past participle of verb l t l .— she has ' she does she goes 3 it has l it does it goes ‘5 we have we do we go 9; I have eaten. I have not eaten. Have I eaten? Have I not eaten? (rare) you have you do you go 5 I’ve eaten. I haven’t eaten. —Yes, I have. Haven’t I eaten? they have they do they go Hi i l ‘ 5 You have eaten. You have not eaten. Have you eaten? Have you not eaten? (rare) figs; tense: 1 l lense: [ aisgtlense: You’ve eaten. You haven’t eaten. —No, you haven’t. Haven’t you eaten? I Iplgsc't partictple: i zgigpartlaple: Sgiieparllclple' He has eaten. He has not eaten. Has he eaten? Has he not eaten? (rare) 3 present participle: 3 present participle: present participle: He’s eaten- He hasn’t eaten —YeS, he haS- Hasn’t he eaten? having i doing going VERBS [CONTINUED] IRREGULAR VERB FORMS PAST TIME (CONTINUED) Use A past action completed before another past event: She had never been to Mexico before last year. Base Form P05? ngliciple i i- l U l % Form had + past participle of verb beat beat beaten, beat i a, I 3; become became become ‘0 v 8 You had eaten. You had not eaten. Had you eaten? Had you not eaten? . b63111 began begun vr You’d eaten. You hadn’t eaten. ~Yes, you had. Hadn’t you eaten? f bend bent bent g r _ _ . break broke broken 3 Use An action continuing in the past until now: I have been kmttlng that sweaterfor three months. _ .2 3 bring brought , brought .. >. g g Form have been or has been + mg form of verb build built built h E, Guam" buy bought bought 0 . . . . . g L) I have been eating, I have not been eating. Have I been eatlng? Have I not been eating? catch caught caught “- I’ve been eating. I haven’t been eating. —No, I haven’t. Haven’t I been eating? h h h c oose c ose c osen .5 m Use A past action interrupted by another past event: Eliza had been sleepingfor two hours when Sarah came in. Come came come 0 3 "'5 a Form had been + -ing form of verb cost cost COSt “- - r r r. ' r t 1;, E ‘ 7 cut cut on S 3 . . . , . do did done He had been eatlng. He had not been eatlng. Had he been eating? Hadn t he been eating? d d d raw rew rawn FUTURE TIME eat ate eaten . . . fall fell fallen Use A promised future action: Iwzll see you tomorrow. feel felt felt Form will + hose form of verb fl d f und found , , n o g fly flew flown m ‘5 I will eat. Iwill not eat. Will I eat? Will I not eat? rare; for et for at for Otten : I’ll eat. Iwon’t eat. ers, I will. Won’t I eat? g g g E. get got gotten, got .- You will eat. You will not eat. Will you eat? Will you not eat? ’rare. “ ' row rew rown m You’ll eat. You won’t eat. —No, you won’t. Won’t you eat? g g g go went gone He will eat. He will not eat. Will he eat? Will he not eat? .' hang hung hung He’ll eat. He won’t eat. —Yes, he will. Won’t he eat? have had had Use An (interrupted) future action: He will be painting the house when you come tonight. hear heard heard In 2 g Form will be + -ing form of verb know knew known 3 , . 7. . A ,, " E .‘E : V 7 lead led led 8 I will be eating. I will not be eating. Will I be eating? Will I not be eating? leave left left I’ll be eating. I won’t be eating. —No, I won’t. Won't I be eating? lose lost lost make made made ,_ Use An action that will be finished before some time in the future. t t t E; rare The children will have eaten all the candy before the party tomorrow. mee me me g’ " a aid aid > D a.) Form will have + past portipie of verb p y p p g fig 2 put put put E g g z 3 ° 13 E E z a ' _ read [reed] read [red] read [red] 3°) g . g 5 We Will have eaten. We Will not have eaten. Will we have eaten? Won’t we have eaten? _ . g C, 2 E u, ,_ o~ rise rose risen g g E a, ,_ Use An action that will already be in progress at a future time. Fun ran run 5 g ‘3» '3 g g rare By June, I will have been traveling for six weeks. say said ' said E g E ‘6 § Form will have been + -ingform of verb see saw seen or, ._ 2:} g Verb forms Negative sell sold sold g 3 . t "' I will have been eating. Iwfll not have been eating. Will I have been eating? Won’t I have been eating? send 56m sent ._ E U rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr '— set set set E 3 _ u. IF . . . THEN. CONDITIONAL SENTENGES Show Showed shown a g "If. . . then” sentences are used to talk about events that have not happened. . Cause and Effect: Expresses what will happen ifsomething else happens. 5mg sang sung 3 g ' . . ' t sat 3‘ If subject verb phrase then subject verb phrase Slt sa 3 present future sleep slept slept if my mother sends me money then i will visit her in June. Speak SPOke SPOken - The main clause (the "then" piece) may also be in the present tense: Spend spent spent it you wontto be thinner, then why do you eat so much fatty food? Stand stood Stood Probability and lmprobobilify: Talks about the outcome of a possible event. swim swam swum If subject verb phrase then subject would verb phrase take took taken my base ’Orm teach taught taught If my mother sent me money then i would visit her every month. ‘ tear tore tom 3 V - If the verb to be is in the "if" clause, use were instead of was to suggest that the situation is impossible or extremely unlikely: 3 r if i were rich, i would buy twenty cars, [But i am not rich, so I won't buy twenty cars.) ten tom teld ’ think thought thought Controry-to-Focf Post Event: Talks about the hypothetical outcome of an event that did not happen. understand understood understood If subject verb phrase then ’ subject would have verb phrase post perfect past participle wear were worn if my mother had sent me money then i would have visited her last spring. ‘ write wrote written ill ‘ SPARKCHARTS“ V 5049 1-4114-0060-7 9 781411400603 ISBN SparkCharfs is a registered Trademark Drinted in the USA $4.95 $7.95 CAN Copyright © 2004 by SparkNotes LLC. of SparkNotes LLC. All rights reserved. A Barnes & Noble Publication 09876543 ESL GRAMMAR AND EFL gwoums . l o Places: library, park, Europe ‘ 0 . People: teacher, Englishman, Sarah Animals: cat, snake, Fido Things: cup, milk, the National Monument 0 Ideas: education, truth, anger A noun is either singular (one book) or plural (many books). COMMON NOUNS AND PROPER NOUNS l - Common nouns refer to general people, places, or things: table, father, food i - Proper nouns name specific people, places, and things. They start with a capital letter: Maria, Europe, New York City, Harvard University, the Johnsons (a family) coum' nouns AND NONCOUNT NOUNS - Count nouns name things that can be counted. They have both singular and plural forms: one book, many books, two tomatoes, my mother, all his lies They only have singular forms: milk, rice, anger, intelligence. Nomour‘r hows indv be languages: French, Hindi large, inseparable masses: water, cotton 'masses of small discrete items: sugar abstract ideas: health, love, stupidity other concepts: time, chess, politics PLURAL FORMS weeps Add -s to most nouns to make plural forms: t table > tables, mother t mothers. Only count ‘ nouns have plural forms. Special cases j - Nouns ending in -s, -sh, -ch, -x, -z: add -es. bust buses, glass % glasses, dish 7 dishes, beach 5 beaches, box r boxes baby t babies, fly? flies Nouns ending in awe + y: add -s. boy 3 boys Nouns ending in -f or -fe: change to -ves. leaf» leaves, life 9 lives Irregular plurals i - Some nouns have irregular plurals: ‘ man t men, child 3 children, person a people, woman [WU»men] twomen [WI—men], tooth 1 teeth, foot t feet, mouse r mice DETERMINERS WITH COU Nouns ending in CO”SC"C".'+ y: change to -ies. ‘ Nouns identify people, places, animals, things, or ideas. - Some nouns do not change in the plural: one sheep » two sheep, that deer > those deer, a fish é many fish 2' many fishes - Some nouns—loan words from foreign languages—have foreign plurals: analysis :» analyses, phenomenon .» phenomena POSSESSIVE FORMS Show ownership with an apostrophe (') and s. Singular nouns - Usually add -‘s the coat of the teacher 5 the teacher’s coat. Edna’s mother the book’s cover my love’s reward the fox's cleverness this class’s lunch hour ' if the noun ends in -s, sometimes only -’ is added: the class’ lunch hour Plural nouns 0 Add -' to regular plurals all the teachers’ hats, those girls’ parents; The words’ meaning is unclear. - Add -’s if the plural noun does not end in -s women’s issues the mice's food ‘ MODIFYING NOUNS l- Noncount nounts cannot be counted. ‘ Nouns can be modified by determiners and descriptive adjectives. In each blue suit, each is a determiner and blue is a descriptive adjective. Determiners ‘ A determiner can be one of the following: 'I. An article: a, an, the 2. A demonstrative: this, that, these, those 3. Another expression of quantity, such as no, one, two, both, a couple of, few, little, a few, a little, several, a number of, eleven, 0 lot of, many, much, each, every. - Always use a determiner with singular count nouns: We saw a horse. - Plural count nouns and noncount nouns do not always need determiners. We saw horses. They eat hay. - A noun may have no more than one deter» miner, but many descriptive adjectives: several friendly gray baby rabbits Counting count and noncount nouns - Count nouns may be counted: twenty fish, many spoons. - Noncount nouns cannot be counted directly. Use a unit such as cups, pieces, pounds, with the word of, to show spe~ cific quantities: two cups of water, many gallons of rice NOUNS AND NONCOUNT N0 N5 l Some determiners may be used with both count and noncount nouns. 3 Others can be used only with count nouns, or only with noncount nouns. Only with count nouns few, a few We hauefew plates. Tell me afew stories. many, too many Many games exhaust children. each, every I think about you every day. all All students take calculus. Only with noncount nouns little We have too littlefood. a little Show me a little love. much, too much Too muchfun is badfor children. With both count and noncount nouns Count nouns Noncount nouns no No song is that lovely. There was no music playing. some some coins some mail any Have youfound any clues? Have you had any luck? a lot of, lots of a lot ofpeople lots ofmoney all the all the hours ofmy life all the time ARTICLES An article introduces a noun and indicates how specific the noun is. English has two articles: the definite article the and the indefinite article a (or an). INDEFINITE ARTICLE (A, AN] Use a (or an) only before singular count ' nouns. - A (or an) means, approximately, "one." "I saw a cat” and “i saw one cat” describe ‘ the same event, but "I saw one cat” emphasizes that there was only one cat, not two. Use the indefinite article to introduce . . . 1. Nonspecific, unknown nouns: He entered a brown building. There is an apple on the tree. 2. One of a general group: A computer can do many things. A or An? - Use a before words that begin with consonant sounds: a tree a year a hotel a university a large elephant - Use on before words that begin with ‘ vowel sounds: an apple an umbrella an hour an old man ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS Adjectives describe nouns and pronouns. DEFINITE ARTICLE [THE] : The indicates that the noun that follows has already been defined in some way. i The introduces . . . 1. Specific, known nouns: the woman next to me, the plants in her yard, the day after tomorrow, the beauty of the world 2. One-of-a—kind nouns: The sun is shining. I want to buy the biggest house in Paris. , 3. Nouns representing a general class of things: I play the piano. Every day, | go to the office. The computer is an amazing invention! 3 mo ARTICLE . Omit articles . . . . 1. Before nonspecific plural count nouns. There are apples on the tree. Computers can do many things. i 2. Before nonspecific noncount nouns. Honesty is very important to me. I love milkl , 3. Before some expressions. "I went to school” means that I went to my school to study, whereas “i went to the school“ means that I went to some particular school building. Adverbs answer the questions where? when? how? how often? ADJECTIVES in English, adjectives come before the words they modify. They do not change, regardless of gender or number. Common adjective endings -able capable —ible responsible ~ous dangerous -al national -tul careful -less careless -ive attractive -y tasty Nouns and verbs used as adjectives - Nouns can describe other nouns. cherry pie a pie made with cherries grocery store a store that sells groceries ‘ - Verbs can also act as adjectives. ‘l. The present participle (—ing forms) describes the subject of the verb. 2. The past participle (-ed forms) describes the object of the verb. if a bear frightens Mary, then the bear is frightening, and Mary is frightened. ADVERBS Adverbs explain _ . . - Location or direction of action: here, there, everywhere, nearby, indoors, up - Time of action: now, then, later, early, 3 tomorrow, next year, already, not yet, still - Frequency of action: never, once, every . week, sometimes, often, usually, always - Manner of action: slowly, carefully These are often formed by adding —|y to an ; adjective: soft v softly, happy t happily. - intensity: very intelligent, fairly slowly, rather boring, quite annoying COMPARATIVES To strengthen short adjectives and adverbs . - Add -er (or »r): short r shorter, nice » nicer He runs fast, but I run faster. For one-syllable adjectives that end in vowel + consonant, double the last letter: big t bigger hot r hotter ‘ - Use than to make a comparison: Bill is tall. Mike is taller than Bill. : To strengthen longer adjectives and adverbs Use more . . . than: sadlys more sadly interesting l more interesting Jenny plays chess more often than Berta. To weaken adjectives and adverbs Use not as. . . as or less. . . than. he lake is not as lovely as the river. She drives less carefully than her sister. For equal comparison, use as . . . as. his book is as boring as that newspaper. SUPERLATIVES ‘ superlative forms are used when comparing at ‘ least three things to one other. ‘ - Ctange -r of the comparative form to -st. fast t faster t the fastest wet > wetter t the wettest My essay is short. Bob’s essay is shorter ; han mine. Sue’s essay is the shortest. i 0 Put most and least before longer adjectives and adverbs. he most insane the least interesting s the Statue of Liberty the most frequently visited monument in New York? IRREGULAR COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS Some comparative and superlative forms are irregular. Adjective and Adverb Comparative Superlative Example good adj better the best You are the best singer in well adv the Show. bad adj Today is worse than worse the worst badly adv yesterday. little adj, adv less the least Give me less sugar. many ad] more the most I want more coffee. many adv ' Alaska is the arthest awa far adj’ adv farther the farthest f y physlcal distance from home that] have ever been. ' ’ ' h' bl far all], adv further the furthest Lets discuss t ls pro em abstract distance further tomorrow. ...
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ESL and EFL Grammar - PRONOUNS Pronouns replace nouns or...

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