M171L_1_6a_Fiber_F_10 (1)

M171L_1_6a_Fiber_F_10 (1) - L AB 6a (11/04) F i ber Opti cs...

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1 LAB 6a (11/04) Fiber Optics Communication Link 1. Introduction 2. Optical Fiber, P hysical Background 3. The Light Transmitters and the Receivers as a Components of the Fiber Optic Communication Links 4. Light Emitting Diodes 5. Transmitters 6. Driving Circuits 7. Receivers 8. p-i-n Photodiode 9. Transceivers and Repeaters 10. Fiber Optic Communication Link Rise Time and Bandwidth Bandwidth 11. Communication Link Power Budget 12. Connectors
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2 Optical Fiber Output data DRIVER Source-to-fiber connector SOURCE OUTPUT CIRCUIT Fiber-to-detector connector DETECTOR Transmitter Receiver Input data
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3 1 . Wide bandwidth : Fiber optic system uses light as a carrier with
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4 Year 1974 1976 1978 1980 1984 1986 1988 1990 1982 1992 Optical amplifiers 800 nm, multimode 1300 nm single-mode 1550 nm direct detection 1550 nm coherent detection Optical soliton 10 14 10 13 10 12 10 11 10 10 10 9 10 8 Bits per second, per 1 km distance
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5 A. I ndex of Refraction C= 3×10 8 meters per second, but it is reduced when it passes through matter. The index of refraction n : υ c n = speed of light in a vacuum, 3×10 8 m/s speed of light in the given material f = λ 1 0 0 = = n n λ ν c f = = 0 0 wavelength of light in a vacuum wavelength of light in the given material c 0 0 X ray, 1 n
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6 I ndex of refraction and speed of light for various materials. Index of Refraction Speed of Light Free space (vacuum) 1.0 3×10 8 m/s Air at sea level 1.003 2.99×10 8 m/s Ice 1.31 2.29×10 8 m/s Water 1.33 2.26×10 8 m/s Glass (minimum) 1.45 2.07×10 8 m/s Glass (maximum) 1.80 1.67×10 8 m/s
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7 θ 1 : The incident angle (from the surface normal) 2 : The angle of refracted light (from the surface normal) n 1 : index of refraction in the incident medium n 2 : index of refraction in the refracting medium Light that is not absorbed (or refracted) will be reflected. The incident ray , the reflected ray , the refracted ray , and the normal to the surface will all lie in the same plane. 2 2 1 1 sin sin = n n B. Refraction with Snell's Law
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8 θ 1 θ 1 Incident ray normal Reflected ray Refracted ray θ 2 Incident medium n 1 n 2 < n 1 Refracting medium C. Total internal reflection θ 1 = θ CR θ 1 Incident ray normal Reflected ray Refracted ray θ 2 Incident medium n 1 n 2 < n 1 Refracting medium 1 2 sin n n CR = θ Total internal reflection when 1 > CR .
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9 Critical angle refraction=90 0 ( 29 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 CR , 1 sin n n n n n i - = - = θ
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D.
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This note was uploaded on 01/08/2011 for the course EE EE 132 taught by Professor Rubin during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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M171L_1_6a_Fiber_F_10 (1) - L AB 6a (11/04) F i ber Opti cs...

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