MeasuringAcidity - Identifying & Measuring Acidity The...

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Measuring Acidity The word “acid” comes from the Latin acidus , meaning “sour” or “tart” and is also related to the Latin word acetum meaning “vinegar”. Properties commonly associated with acids are: 1. sour or tart taste, 2. reacts with metals to form hydrogen gas, 3. reacts with bases to form salts, 4. turns blue litmus red, 5. reacts with carbonates to liberate carbon dioxide gas. Several theories have been proposed to answer the question “What is an acid and a base ?” The following table summarizes the three most common theories: Theory Acid Base Arrhenius Contains H + Contains OH - ions. ions. Brönsted- A proton (H + ) A proton (H + ) Lowry donor. acceptor. Lewis Electron-pair Electron-pair acceptor. donor. The Arrhenius theory is the easiest to understand and is restricted to water (aqueous) solutions. The Brönsted-Lowry theory works for all solvents and has become the more important theory for non-aqueous solutions. The Lewis theory is used to identify substances other than protons donors that can behave as acids. It is primarily useful in organic chemistry.
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The Brönsted-Lowry
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MeasuringAcidity - Identifying & Measuring Acidity The...

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