Lecture05 - Basidiomycetes Phylum: Basidiomycota Class:...

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Unformatted text preview: Basidiomycetes Phylum: Basidiomycota Class: Basidiomycetes Class: Urediomycetes Class: Ustomycetes Class: Basidiomycetes Basidia and basidiospores borne in basidiocarp. Includes mushroom (=Agaricales). Classification of orders based on basidium, basidiocarp morphology and basidiospore dispersal. Basidiospores forcibly ejected from forcibly basidium, except Gasteromycetes (puff balls). Class: Basidiomycetes The mushroom will be used as the representative life cycle for the class. Pileus Lamella Stipe Basidiospores Class: Basidiomycetes Class: Germination of basidiospores forms monokaryon. Plasmogamy of monokaryons form dikaryon. Basidiospores Class: Basidiomycetes Dikaryon is the mycelium that forms the basidiocarp. Thus, basidiocarp is dikaryotic. Only dikaryotic cells forming layer on edge and side of lamella, will form basidia and basidiospores. Fertile layer is the hymenium. hymenium “-” Monokaryon Clamp connection “+” Monokaryon Dikaryon 1 Class: Basidiomycetes Karyogamy occurs only in hymenial cells to form zygote. Zygote undergoes meiosis, immediately, following karyogamy. Basidiospres form on sterimata, basidiospores formation, nuclei migration. Class: Basidiomycetes Hymenium, in part Zygotes Class: Basidiomycetes Clamp connections were present in dikaryon in example given. Present in many species of Basidiomycetes. Formation of clamp connection has a function. Class: Basidiomycetes Clamp connections formation: Clamp formation begins Elongation of hyphal tip Migration of one nucleus into clamp Class: Basidiomycetes Clamp connections formation (Continued) Mitosis of both nuclei Class: Basidiomycetes Class: Variation exist in the type of basidiocarp and basidia produced. Variations not meaningful, with respect to phylogeny. Variations of basidiocarp, in the order: Aphyllophorales. Pair of nuclei migrate to hyphal tip Formation of septa Fusion of clamp to adjacent Fusion cell 2 Order: Aphyllophorales Pycnoporous sanguineus, a “bracket”fungus , has pored hymenium. Basidia and basidiospores borne in pores. Order: Aphyllophorales Ganoderma applanatum, another example of pored hymenium. Also called the artist fungus. Order: Aphyllophorales Laetiporous sulphureus, another species of pored hymenium. Order: Aphyllophorales a coral fungus. Basidia and basidiospores are borne on the tips of the basidiocarp. “Spined” or “toothed” hymenium Ramaria fragilima, Order: Agaricales Amanita marmorata, a mushroom, with “gilled” hymenium Order: Agaricales a very distinctive mushroom. Amanita muscaria, 3 Order: Agaricales Suillus salmonicolor is also a member of the Agaricales, but has pores pores instead of gills. Class: Basidiomycetes Gasteromycetes (Puff Balls) Gasteromycetes Lack hymenium Basidiospores not forcibly ejected from basidium. Various mechanisms evolved to disperse basidiospores. Gasteromycetes Order: Lycoperdales Lycoperdon pyriforme Gasteromycetes Lycoperdon has a flexible peridium. When pressure applied by small mammal or raindrop, basidiospores “puffed” into air. Gasteromycetes Another species in Lycoperdales Geastrum tripex (Earth Star): same dispersal mechanism as Lycoperdon. Geastrum tripex 4 Gasteromycetes Phallales (Stink Horns) Aseroe Rubra : Bright color and foul odor attract flies. Gasteromycetes Dictyophora cinnabarina, another stinkhorn. Aseroe rubra Gasteromycetes Order: Nidulariales (Birds Nest Fungi) Nidulariales Dispersal Mechanism Rain drop Cyathus disperses its basidiospores, within the “eggs” of the fungus by a rain-drop splash mechanism. Nidulariales Dispersal Mechanism Peridiole Nidulariales Dispersal Mechanism Funiculus Hapteron Impact will splash out a peridiole (“egg”) a short distant. Funiculus unravels and wraps around substrate after hapteron sticks onto substrate. 5 Class: Basidiomycetes Relationship between some mushrooms and puffballs. Genera exist that are morphologically intermediate between mushrooms and puffballs. Such fungi are referred to as secotioid fungi. Example of Relationships Coprinus comatus (Shaggy Mane): A common temperate species. Example of Relationships Podaxis pistillaris, a secotioid species. Cap does not open, lacks hymenium, basidiospores not ejected. Example of Relationships A small common species in Hawai‘i. Laccaria fraterna : Example of Relationships Hydnangeum carneum : A less common secotioid fungus that also occurs in Hawai‘i. “Jelly Fungi” Microscopically same as Laccaria. 6 Jelly Fungi Septate or deeply lobed basidia. Classification based on basidium morphology. Orders of Jelly Fungi: Auriculariales Tremellales Dacrymycetales Auriculariales Auricularia cornea (pepeiao) Basidium transversely transversely septate. Tremella fuciformis Tremellales Basidium cruciate septate. Calocera cornea Dacrymycetales Tunning Ford Basidium 7 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/09/2011 for the course BOT 201 taught by Professor Webb,d during the Spring '08 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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