WS7KEY - Chapter Seven Worksheet Key Describe the cellular...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter Seven Worksheet Key Describe the cellular regions where glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain occur. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and the end product, pyruvate, is transported into the mitochondria. In the mitochondrial maxtrix it is converted into acetyl CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle. The reduced energy carriers, NADH and FADH 2 , are oxidized on the inner mitochondrial membrane and the protons are pumped into the intermembrane space. When they diffuse back into the matrix, the energy of diffusion is used to produce ATP. Describe how the carbon skeleton of glucose changes as it proceeds through glycolysis. A phophate is added, glucose-6-phosphate (a 6-carbon ring) is isomerized into fructose-6-phosphate (a 5 carbon ring). After the addition of another phosphate, fructose 1,6-bisphophate is split into two isomeric three carbon sugars (dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate). From this point on in glycolysis, the molecule remains a 3-carbon chain. Explain why ATP is required for the preparatory steps of glycolysis. ATP is necessary to phosphorylate glucose, which makes glucose more reactive. Identify where sugar oxidation, substrate-level phosphorylation, and the reduction of NAD+ occur in glycolysis. The sugar glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate is oxidized when triose phosphate dehydrogenase catalyzes the reduction of NAD+ to NADH. The resulting molecule, 1,3-bisphosphate glycerate, has one of the phosphates removed and the resulting product is ATP as the result of substrate-level phosphorylation. The second phosphate is removed in the last step in another substrate-level phophorylation step that produces the final product, pyruvate....
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2008 for the course BIO 111 taught by Professor Reiss during the Spring '08 term at NMT.

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WS7KEY - Chapter Seven Worksheet Key Describe the cellular...

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