Chapter 13 Summary and terms

Chapter 13 Summary and terms - Chapter 13 1 Chapter 13...

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Chapter 13 Chapter 13 Summary Since the beginnings of what later became the United States, intergroup relations based on ethnic and racial background have played a powerful role in shaping both interaction and opportunity. A minority group is a subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives than members of the dominant or majority group have over theirs. The term racial group describes a group that is set apart from others because of physical differences that have taken on social significance. Ethnic groups are set apart from others primarily because of their national origin or distinctive cultural patterns. Race as a biological category does not exist. The racial categories we typically take for granted grow out of sociocultural traditions and historical experiences that are specific to various groups. Racial formation is a sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyed. In this process, those who have power define groups of people according to a racist social structure. The social construction of race refers to the process by which people come to define a group as a race based in part on physical characteristics, but also on historical, cultural, and economic factors. Stereotypes are often used to justify unequal access to resources. In the 2000 census, over 7 million people reported that they were of two or more races. The distinction between racial and ethnic minorities is not always clear-cut. Prejudice is a negative attitude toward an entire category of people. Sometimes prejudice results from ethnocentrism—the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others. Racismis one important and widespread form of prejudice that fosters a belief that one race is supreme and all others are innately inferior. In 2006, more than 1
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Chapter 13 half of the 7,400 hate crimes reported involved racial bias. Discrimination is the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or other arbitrary reasons. The glass ceiling refers to an invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of qualified people in a work environment based on
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This note was uploaded on 01/09/2011 for the course SOC 101 taught by Professor Leedacopley during the Fall '09 term at Columbus State Community College.

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Chapter 13 Summary and terms - Chapter 13 1 Chapter 13...

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