Chapter outlines - Chapter 1 - The Sociological Imagination...

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Chapter 1 - The Sociological Imagination LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Discuss development of the sociological imagination. 2. Define sociology as a social science. 3. Describe the differences between sociology and common sense. 4. Discuss the development of sociological theory. 5. Identify the major sociological perspectives. 6. Compare and contrast functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionism. 7. Describe the significance of social inequality. 8. Discuss the connections between sociology and social policy throughout the world. KEY TERMS Agency The freedom individuals have to choose and to act. Anomie Durkheim’s term for the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective. Applied sociology The use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations. Clinical sociology The use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions. Conflict perspective A sociological approach that assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups. Dramaturgical approach A view of social interaction popularized by Erving Goffman in which people are seen as theatrical performers. Functionalist perspective A sociological approach that emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability. Globalization The worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas. Interactionist perspective A sociological approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole. Macrosociology Sociological investigation that concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations. Microsociology Sociological investigation that stresses the study of small groups, often through experimental means. Natural science The study of the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change. Private troubles Obstacles that individuals face as individuals rather than as a consequence of their social position. Public issues Obstacles that individuals in similar positions face; also referred to by sociologists as “social problems.” Science The body of knowledge obtained by methods based upon systematic observation. Social inequality A condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, and power. Social science The study of the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change.
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Sociological imagination An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, both today and in the past. Sociology
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Chapter outlines - Chapter 1 - The Sociological Imagination...

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