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Orbitals - structure more clearly In reality the position...

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2s 0 2p 0 ±1 1s 0 3s 0 3p 0 ±1 3d 0 ±1 ±2 4s 0 4p 0 ±1 4d 0 ±1 ±2 4f 0 ±1 ±2 ±3 5s 0 5p 0 ±1 5d 0 ±1 ±2 6s 0 6p 0 ±1 7s L K M N O P Q 0 7p 0 ±1 6d 0 ±1 ±2 5f 0 ±1 ±2 ±3 © 2007 Keith Enevoldsen elements.wlonk.com Orbitals rendered with Orbital Viewer from www.orbitals.com 1s 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 7p 3d 4d 5d 6d 4f 5f Periodic table of the elements showing the order in which the subshells are filled. What does an atom look like? An atom has a nucleus of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons. The electrons are often pictured circling the nucleus like planets orbiting the sun. This picture is useful but not very realistic. An orbital may be pictured as a probability density distribution (a fuzzy cloud) or as a surface of constant probability (a bulgy blob). The cloud picture is closer to reality, but the blob picture shows the three dimensional
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Unformatted text preview: structure more clearly. In reality, the position of an electron is known only as a cloud of probability called an orbital. Orbitals have wondrous shapes described by the Schrödinger wave equation from quantum physics. Only two electrons are allowed to occupy each orbital, so atoms with many electrons have many different overlapping orbitals. Orbitals are grouped into shells (K, L, etc.) and subshells (1s, 2p, etc.), with smaller shells surrounded by and permeated by larger shells. The fundamental orbitals are shown here, but there are many more hybrid orbitals—combinations of the fundamental orbitals—with other marvelous shapes. Atomic Orbitals...
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