Stress(Ch2)

Stress(Ch2) - EXSS 41 EXSS 41 Introduction to Health and...

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Unformatted text preview: EXSS 41 EXSS 41 Introduction to Health and Wellness Chapter 2 Insel, P.M. & Roth, W.T. (2008). Core concepts in health (brief 10th ed. UPDATE). New York: McGraw­Hill. Stress Management Stress Management • What is STRESS? Definitions: Stressor­ a situation that triggers physical and emotional reactions Stress Management Stress Management • What is STRESS? Definitions: Stress Response­ the way that the body reacts physiologically to the stressor Stress Management Stress Management • What is STRESS? Definitions: Stress­ the general physical and emotional state that accompanies the stress response Three Types of Stress Three Types of Stress 1. Eustress­is a term coined by endocrinologist Hans Selye and is defined as stress that is healthy, or gives one a feeling of fulfillment or other positive feelings. It is a healthful, stimulating kind and level of stress. It is usually related to desirable events in a person's life. Examples: graduating from college, getting married, receiving a promotion, changing one job for a better prospect, buying a new home. Three Types of Stress Three Types of Stress 1. Neustress­ describes sensory stimuli that have no consequential effect, neither good nor bad This kind of stress arises when a tornado hits an unoccupied island. It is a kind of stress which has no significant consequence. Also, from the scientific point of view, it has no real meaning. Three Types of Stress Three Types of Stress 1. Distress­negative stress brought about by constant readjustments or alterations in a routine Distress creates feelings of discomfort and unfamiliarity. Acute­ Happens fast, is intense, disappears quickly (police car lights flashing behind your car and then that car passes yours) Chronic­ Not as intense, lingers longer, nagging (family issues, long term injury or illness) Acute Stress Acute Stress Acute stress is the reaction to an immediate threat, more popularly known as the fight or flight response. The stress can be due to any situation that is experienced, even subconsciously or falsely, as a danger. Acute Stress Acute Stress Common acute stressors include: Noise Crowding Isolation Hunger Danger Infection Imagining a threat or remembering a dangerous event Chronic Stress Chronic Stress Chronic stress is something which is not short lived. A person with chronic stress experiences it every day on an on­going basis. The stress gets aggravated when an individual tries to suppress it. Common chronic stressors include: Ongoing highly pressured work Long­term relationship problems Loneliness Persistent financial worries Nervous System Nervous System • The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. Part of the nervous system is under voluntary or conscious control (somatic nervous system) and part is not under conscious control (autonomic nervous system). Autonomic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System • Characteristics: 1. under involuntary control (unconscious supervision) 2. controls digestion, breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and hundreds of other functions Physical Responses to Stress Physical Responses to Stress • The two major control systems in your body that are responsible for your physical responses to stress are the NERVOUS and ENDOCRINE systems Two Branches of the Autonomic Two Branches of the Autonomic Nervous System • Parasympathetic Division • Sympathetic Division Parasympathetic Division Parasympathetic Division • Characteristics: – In control when there are no emergency needs (when relaxed) • Aids in digesting food • Aids in storing energy • Aids in promoting growth Sympathetic Division Sympathetic Division • Characteristics: ­Activated when the body needs to react to an emergency (severe pain, anger and fear) Sympathetic Division Sympathetic Division • Characteristics: ­Sympathetic nerves act on nearly every organ, sweat gland, blood vessel and muscle Sympathetic Division Sympathetic Division • Characteristics: ­Commands the body to stop storing energy to mobilize all energy resources to respond to the crisis Endocrine System Endocrine System • Characteristics: ­ system of glands, tissues, and cells ­ helps control body functions by releasing hormones and other chemical messengers Coordinated Functioning of the Coordinated Functioning of the Autonomic and Endocrine Systems During an Emergency • Sympathetic Nervous System prompts the Hypothalamus (control center in the brain) to release a chemical messenger to the Pituitary Gland • The Pituitary Gland releases ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone) into the bloodstream • When ACTH reaches the adrenal glands (located above the kidneys), it stimulates those glands to release cortisol and other key hormones into the bloodstream • Simultaneously, sympathetic nerves instruct the adrenal glands to release epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine Physiological (Biological) Physiological (Biological) Responses to the Release of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine • Hearing and vision become more acute • Bronchii dilate to allow more air into the lungs • Heart rate increases • Blood pressure increases Physiological Responses to the Physiological Responses to the Release of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine • Liver releases extra sugar (energy boost for muscles and brain) • Endorphines are released to relieve pain • Blood cell production increases “GAS” describes what is believed to be a universal and predictable response pattern to all stressors. The sequence of physical responses associated with GAS is the same for eustress and distress and occurs in 3 stages. General Adaptation Syndrome General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) (Hans Selye’s Theory of Stress and Disease) • Alarm Stage (fight or flight reaction) General Adaptation Syndrome General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) (Hans Selye’s Theory of Stress and Disease) ­makes the body vulnerable to disease and injury because it is responding to and coping with a crisis (headaches, indigestion, anxiety) • Resistance Stage General Adaptation Syndrome General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) (Hans Selye’s Theory of Stress and Disease) ­occurs when a person develops a new level of homeostasis to cope with added stress (copes with normal life even with added stress) • Exhaustion Stage General Adaptation Syndrome General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) (Hans Selye’s Theory of Stress and Disease) ­occurs when there is a depletion of resources in the body leaving it vulnerable to disease (distorted perceptions and disorganized thinking) Stress Response Stress Response TIME MANAGEMENT TIME MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 1. Set priorities TIME MANAGEMENT TIME MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES • Prioritize your schedule by categorizing your responsibilities and commitments TIME MANAGEMENT TIME MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES • Choose a “planner” that will allow you to visualize your time commitments • • • • • Daily Weekly Monthly Biannual Annual TIME MANAGEMENT TIME MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES • Choose a system that will be easy to scan visually and that will be aesthetically and functionally pleasing • Options: Color code Green­ due next week Yellow­ due this week Pink­ due today TIME MANAGEMENT TIME MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Use Symbols * = highest priority ! = moderate priority ^ = lowest priority TIME MANAGEMENT TIME MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Block out time periods designated as buffer zones 2 PM 3 PM 4 PM TIME MANAGEMENT TIME MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Assign a space daily or weekly to write important reminders, memos or notations ie: phone Suzie Smith (555­5555) buy birthday present for George wash dog write a thank­you note to Mom make an appt. to meet with Prof. Z. TIME MANAGEMENT TIME MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Have a section assigned for important or frequently used information: addresses (home, work, email/web) ­phone #’s (home, work, cellular, , pager, fax) ­emergency contacts ­medical information (physicians, insurance info., etc.) ­ TIME MANAGEMENT TIME MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 2. Schedule tasks for peak efficiency 3. Set realistic goals and write them down TIME MANAGEMENT TIME MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 4. Allow 10­25% buffer time for unanticipated problems or situations 5. Use short amounts of time wisely instead of waiting for or relying on large blocks or time 6. Identify quick transitional tasks TIME MANAGEMENT TIME MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 7. Consolidate tasks when possible 8. Do your least favorite tasks first 9. Use mental practice to visualize the successful completion of tasks and goals TIME MANAGEMENT TIME MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 10. Delegate responsibility when necessary 11. Say no when necessary 12. Allow free unstructured time for enjoyment 13. Stop thinking or talking about what you PROBLEM SOLVING PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES 1. Define the problem in 1 to 2 sentences 2. Identify the causes of the problem 3. Consider possible solutions PROBLEM SOLVING PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES 4. Weigh the positive and negative consequences for each solution 5. Make a decision by choosing a solution PROBLEM SOLVING PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES 6. Make a list of what you will need to carry out your solution 7. Begin to act on your list as soon as possible 8. Evaluate the outcome and revise your approach, if necessary Relaxation Techniques Relaxation Techniques 1. Deep Diaphragmic Breathing ­With correct sitting posture, you will take a full and complete breath in through your nose, hold it momentarily and then let it out through your nose or mouth ­You should concentrate on distending the stomach as you inhale to allow the diaphragm to move with less inhibition. ­ You should concentrate on releasing all negative energy and relaxing all muscles as you exhale and allow the stomach to return to its relaxed position. ­ Pause momentarily before taking another deep breath. Relaxation Techniques Relaxation Techniques 2. Visualization or Imagery ­ You will be using all of your senses to take an imaginary trip to your favorite place ­This technique requires that you capture an imaginary picture of a peaceful location in your head and let your imagination help you to see, hear, feel, and touch that environment with your mind Relaxation Techniques Relaxation Techniques 1. Meditation Meditation helps you to quiet the mind and tune out the world temporarily, removing both internal and external sources of stress. The technique requires focusing intently on your breathing and/or a meaningful word or phrase or an object (such as a candle flame) while disregarding external stimuli and drifting thoughts. Relaxation Techniques Relaxation Techniques 4. Progressive Relaxation ­You are systematically applying mild muscular tension to each part of the body and concentrating on releasing negative energy as you release the tension ­This technique helps you become aware of the muscle tension that occurs when you are under stress ­There are NO cardiovascular endurance or muscular strength or endurance benefits derived from this technique Coherent heart/HR variability Coherent heart/HR variability • HRC • HR variability ...
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