immune_bio82

immune_bio82 - Immunopathology: Learning Issues Recognize...

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Immunopathology: Learning Issues Recognize some of the structural manifestations of immune mediated tissue injury Understand the pathophysiologic basis for the different manifestations of T cell versus B-cell mediated injury Be aware of diseases which result in immunodeficiency and the result of such deficiency
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The Immune Response: Is antigen specific Demonstrates anamnesis (immune memory) Is designed to help by- But may injure by mediating inflammation Directly (autoimmunity) Indirectly (“bystander effect”) to foreign pathogens
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Categories of Immune-Mediated Disease B cell-mediated (also called humoral immunity ); typically produces acute inflammation Often provoked by soluble antigens (proteins carbohydrates) Primary mediator is antibody molecule ( Immunoglobulin ) T cell-mediated (also called cellular immunity ); typically produces chronic inflammation Often provoked by cellular antigens (or antigens expressed on cells such as viral antigens Primary mediator is cellular ( cytotoxic, effector, T cells CD8+) But humoral cytokines also play a major role Required for effective B-cell immunity to most antigens
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Immunopathology Can Result From: Too little immune response Immune deficiency disease Normal immune response Bystander effects (infectious disease), transplant rejection Too much immune response Allergic disease Misdirected immune response Autoimmune disease Neoplasia of the immune system Leukemias & lymphomas
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Congenital Immunodeficiency Disease There are a large number of genetic congenital defects that can result in immunodeficiency diseases . The exact nature of the disease depends on what stage of lymphoid development is blocked At 1 Reticular dysgenesis (lethal, no blood cells) At 2 Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) – the “bubble boy” (no T or B cells) At 3 No T-cells (Di George Syndrome) really a defect in thymic development At 4 No Ig (Bruton agammaglobulinemia) At 5 A very specific T-cell defect At 6 A very specific B-cell defect – lack of IgA
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Thymus in Immune Deficiency State Normal T-cell depleted
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Autoimmune Thyroiditis Autoimmune Thyroiditis Normal Thyroid Note the almost total obliteration of thyroid follicles by mononuclear cells. Thyroid has appearance of a lymph node Essentially every body system has been associated with autoimmune disease but the endocrine system is a very common site . Note that autoantibodies to some proteins (immunoglobulins are a good example) are found in most or all normals. They may serve a physiologic function.
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Acquired Immunodeficiency Diseases Acquired immunodeficiency states may be associated with multiple etiologies Infection induced (AIDS) Iatrogenic (steroid, cytotoxic therapy) Malnutrition ( Pneumocystis ) Depletion induced (cytotoxic therapy)
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immune_bio82 - Immunopathology: Learning Issues Recognize...

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