April 16 - -North and South on the Eve of War-Westward...

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April 16, 2009 -North and South on the Eve of War -Westward Expansion - Missouri Compromise -Texas -Compromise of 1850 -Uncle Tom’s Cabin -John Brown -Election of 1860 -Lower South Secedes -Fort Sumter and the Upper South Secession Did not think of possibility thinking of sectional crisis or the possibilities of war There is a great debate whether the North and South had developed into two distinct regions in the 1860s. Some believe they were in separate regions, the south defined by slavery. Other scholars say they were not distinct, had common language, history, religion, culture the differences were minor. People in 1850’s and 1860’s believed that they were of two different cultures, they were different, white southerners looked north and saw people vastly different from them. Key think is whether or not there were differences, the thing was that people believed that they were and acted. North—Increasing far more rapidly in the antebellum years. More immigrants coming into the northern region, more population, the north is more developed commercially and industrially. There is a strong section of agriculture in the north,
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40% worked or lived on small farms. (mainly in Midwest) the north had strong strain of Yankee Protestantism. Be thrifty, avoid alcohol, work hard. The north also embraced the reform movements, temperance, public education, much more likely in the north than south. Most important, reform movement of abolitionism. Historians believe they had the free labor ideology and had a strong hold in north by 1850. Ideology, the people who owned the factor and those who worked in the factors, individuals could work hard from having nothing to middle class. The whig party splits and the republican party’s main belief was the free labor ideology. The north looked south and saw a lazy, cruel, violent people who didn’t subscribe to the ideals that would make the US great. South--In terms of population, south was losing ground, if you lost population, who had fewer rep. the road networks in south underdeveloped, cities were fewer, small, New Orleans 160,000, biggest city. The south was overwhelming agriculture (80% of labor force) the vast majority of southern wealth was tied up in land and slaves. Wealthy slave holders dominated socially and politically. Cotton supplies the northern and European textile mills. Cotton exports give the country and favorable balance of trade. Southern religion differed than the north. Like the north, mostly protestant, but different strain. It was less concerned with reforming and improving society than with individual salvation. Reform movements do not take off like they did in the North. Virtually no abolitionism, education lagged far behind from the North. White southerners looked north saw region of cold, people who did not care about family but the mighty dollar.
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