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Unformatted text preview: James S. Fairweather James S. Fairweather is Professor of Higher, Adult, and Lifelong Education at Michi- gan State University. His interests focus on faculty work and higher education policy. The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 76, No. 4 (July/August 2005) Copyright © 2005 by The Ohio State University In 1990, Ernest Boyer argued in Scholarship Re- considered for a renewed commitment to college teaching by recasting instruction as a form of scholarship. He intended to enhance the visibil- ity of teaching on college campuses and to reduce what he saw as an overemphasis on traditional faculty scholarly publication (scholarship of discovery) (Boyer, 1990). Boyer’s work appeared at a time when a dra- matic recasting of teaching seemed essential. Traditional scholarly pro- ductivity in various forms had become an almost universal expectation for promotion and tenure at all types of 4-year colleges and universities (Bok, 1992; Massy & Wilger, 1995; Trow, 1984). In the late 1980s and early 1990s, it also dominated the internal and external academic labor markets (Winston, 1994). During this time, research consistently showed scholarly productivity as the strongest correlate of faculty pay. Teaching was typically unrelated to or a negative factor in faculty com- pensation. According to the 1987–1988 and 1992–1993 National Sur- veys of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF-88 and NSOPF-93), faculty who taught less and published more received the highest average salaries regardless of type of 4-year institution or academic discipline (Fairweather, 1994, 1996, 1997). Boyer’s seminal work unquestionably influenced the policy con- versation within and outside of academe. Efforts such as Gene Rice’s American Association of Higher Education Forum on Faculty Roles and Rewards have led to many reforms in the assessment of faculty work Beyond the Rhetoric: Trends in the Relative Value of Teaching and Research in Faculty Salaries (Braskamp & Ory, 1994; Glassick, Huber, & Maeroff, 1997). Legislative policies in Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, and many other states now tie some public university resources to a commitment to teaching and learning (Banta, 1986; Burke & Serban, 1998). Federal agencies, such as the National Science Foundation (NSF), and independent founda- tions, such as the Bush Foundation, have invested heavily in undergrad- uate education and professional development for teaching. The NSF has gone so far as to require aspiring grantees to demonstrate how their pro- posed research work will improve teaching and learning. The past decade also has seen increasing evidence about the effective- ness of active and collaborative instructional practices in improving stu- dent learning as well as about faculty development strategies to encour- age the use of these practices by college teachers (Bruffee, 1993; Seldin & Associates, 1990; Wankat, 2002). Many colleges and universities have established centers for teaching and learning for this purpose (Rice, Sor-...
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This note was uploaded on 01/09/2011 for the course EDS 103 taught by Professor White during the Spring '10 term at E. Kentucky.
- Spring '10