Yale - Hofstadter, R. a Smith, w. feds.) (1961)....

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Unformatted text preview: Hofstadter, R. a Smith, w. feds.) (1961). American“ higher education: A documentary history (v.1). Chicago, lL: University of Chicago Press. The Yale Report of 1828 Yale’s leadership in furnishing the largest number of college presidents and, with Princeton, faculty members to the new colleges of the South and West made this the most influential document in American higher education in the first half of the nineteenth century. It was written as the reply of the Yale Corporation and faculty to Connecticut critics of the classical college curriculum who, like exponents of vocations, or “practical” studies elsewhere in the 18205, were specifically opposing the retention of the “dead” languages. The two authors of the Report, which was somewhat shortened for publication in Benjamin Silliman’s famous magazine and to which was added a seven—page endorsement by a committee of the Yale Corporation, were President Jeremiah Day (1773—1867) and Professor James L. Kingsley (1778—1852). Day, who wrote the first part, was officially connected with Yale for sixty—nine years as tutor, professor, president, and member of the Corporation; his successful presidency was marked by its stability, conservatism, and caution. Kingsley, author of the second part, taught at Yale from 1801 to 1851 ; his outstanding scholarship made him eminent in the fields of classics, mathematical scienCe, and New England history. Their work quieted the critics of the college and intrenched the classics at Yale for the rest of the century. Not until the 18505 did men such as Francis Wayland attempt to soften the impact of the Report in some other institutions by their efforts toward curricular change and expansion. Modern discussions of the Report can be found in R. Freeman Butts, The College Charts Its Coarse: Historical Conceptions and Current Proposals (New York, 1939), pp. 18—25; George P. Schmidt, The Liberal Arts College: A Chapter in American Cultural History (New Brunswick, NJ, 1957), pp. 55—58; and Richard Hofstadter and C. DeWitt Hardy, The Development and Scope of Higher Education in the United States (New York, 1952), pp. 15—17. Remarks by the Editor [Benjamin Silliman] The following papers relate to an important subject, respecting which there is at presant some diversity of opinion. As the interests of sound learning, in relationboth to literature and science, and to professional and active life, are intimately connected with the views developed in the subjoined reports, they are therefore inserted in this Journal, in the belief that they will be deemed both important and interesting by its readers. At- a Meeting of the President and Fellows of Yale College, Sept 11th, 1827, the Following Resolution Was Passed That His Excellency Governor Tomlinson, Rev. President Day, Rev. Dr. Chapin, Hon. Noyes Darling, and Rev. Abel McEwen, be a committee to inquire into the expediency of so altering the regular c0urse of instruction in this college, as to leave out of said course the study of the dead languages, substituting other studies therefor; and either requiring a competent knowledge of said languages, as a condition of admittance into the college, or providing instruction in the same, for such as shall choose to study them after admittance; and that the said committee be requested to report at the next annual meeting of this corporation. NOTICE: THIS MATERIAL MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT LAW 72 OITLE 17 U.S. CODE) ' Listenin to Dissentin Voices 73 ._ .. This committee, at their first meeting in April, 1828, after taking into consideration the case ' .'-referred to them, requested the faculty of the college to express their views on the subject of the ' ' . resolution. ' - " .: _The expediency of retaining the ancient languages, as an essential part of our course of :3" " .mstruction, is so obviously connected with the object and plan of education in the college, that .2 justice could not be done to the particular subject of inquiry in the resolution, without a brief ' "statement of the nature and arrangement of the various branches of the whole system. The report ' of the faCulty was accordingly made out in twoparts; one containing a summary view of the plan " " - of education in the college; the other, an inquiry into the expediency of insisting on the study of _ the-ancient languages. . . . Report of the F'aIICU‘ItYr Part I _ .5. We are decidedly of the opinion, that our present plan of education admits of improvement. . '3' We are aware that the system is imperfect: and we cherish the hope, that some of its defects may ' -. ere long be remedied. We believe that changes may, from time to time be made with advantage, to '; Smear the varying demands of the community, to accommodate the course of instruction to the ' '1- '._-':rapid advance of the Country, in population, refinement, and opulence. We have no doubt that 'Z'ifnpo'rtant improvements may be suggested, by attentive observation of the literary institutions in I Europe; and by the earnest spirit of inquiry which is now so prevalent, on the subject of education. ,I I- lé'The guardians of the college appear to have ever acted upon the principle, that it ought not to ' -- .- "be stationary, but Continually advancing. Some alteration has accordingly been proposed, almost - every year, from its first establishment. . . . Not only the course of studies, and the modes of instruction, have been greatly varied; but whole sciences have, for the first time, been introduced; chemistry, mineralogy, geology, political “economy, Src. By raising the qualifications for admission, the standard of attainment has been elevated. Alterations so extensive and frequent, satisfactorily prove, that if those who are en- . trusted with the superintendence of the institution, still firmly adhere to some of its original features, it is from a higher principle, than a blind oppositibn to salutary reform. Improvements, ' . Wetrust, will continue to be made, as rapidly as they can be, without hazarding the loss of what I '3' __ .has been already attained. _ But perhaps the time has come, when we ought to pause, and inquire, whether it will be I - Sufficient to make gradual changes, as heretofore; and whether the whole system is not rather to be ' brbken up, and a better one substituted in its stead. From different quarters, we have heard the suggestion, that our colleges must be new-modelled; that they are not adapted to the spirit and [Wants of the age; that they will soon be deserted, unless they are better accommodated to the . business character of the nation. As this point may have an important bearing upon the question I immediately before the committee, we would ask their indulgence, while we attempt to explain, at some length, the nature and object of the present plan of education at the college. . . . _ _ _ What then is the appropriate object of a college? It is not necessary here to determine what it is which, in every case, entitles an institution to the name of a college. But if we have not greatly -' .misapprehended the design of the patrons and guardians of this college, its object is to lay the ' _ . ' foundation ofa superior education: and this is to be done, at a period of life when a substitute must be . provided for parental saperintendence. The ground work of a thorough education, must be broad, “and deep, and solid. For a partial or superficial education, the support may be of looser materials, 'I ' and more hastily laid. The two great points to be gained in intellectual culture, are the discipline and the furniture of the mind; expanding its powers, and storing it with knowledge. The former of these is, perhaps, lite more important of the two. A commanding object, therefore, in a collegiate course, should be, - .to call into daily and vigorous exercise the faculties of the student. Those branches of study should I '_ The prescribed, and those modes of instruction adopted, which are best calculated to teach the art - :0? fiXing the attention, directing the train of thought, analyzing a subject proposed for investiga- .' hon; following, with accurate discrimination, the course of argument; balancing nicely the evi- U '7 Ii-dénce presented to the judgment; awakening, elevating, and controlling the imagination; arrang— 74 Revisioning Curriculum in Higher Education ing, with skill, the treasures which memory gathers; rousing and guiding the powers of genius. All this is not to be effected by a light and hasty course of study; by reading a few books, hearing a few lectures, and spending some months at a literary institution. The habits of thinking are to be formed, by long continued and close application. The mines of science must be penetrated far below the surface, before they will disclose their treasures. If a dexterous performance of the manual operations, in many of the mechanical arts, requires an apprenticeship, with diligent attention for years; much more does the training of the powers of the mind demand vigorous, and steady, and systematic effort. In laying the foundation of a thorough education, it is necessary that all the important mental faculties be brought into exercise. . . . In the course of instruction in this college, it has been an object to maintain such a proportion between the different branches of literature and science, as to form in the student a proper balance of character. From the pure mathematics, he leams the art of demonstrative reasoning. In attending to the physical sciences, he becomes familiar with facts, with the process of induction, and the varieties of probable evidence. In ancient literature, he finds some of the most finished models of taste. By English reading, he learns the powers of the language in which he is to speak and write. By logic and mental philosophy, he is taught the art of thinking; by rhetoric and oratory, the art of speaking. By frequent exercise on written composi- tion, he acquires copiousness and accuracy of expression. By extemporaneous discussion, he becomes prompt, and fluent, and animated. It is a point of high importance, that eloquence and solid learning should go together; that he who has accumulated the richest treasures of thought, should possess the highest powers of oratory. To what purpose has a man become deeply learned, if he has no faculty of communicating his knowledge? And of what use is a display of rhetorical elegance, from one who knows little or nothing which is worth communicating? . . . No one feature in a system of intellectual education, is of greater moment than such an arrangement of duties and motives, as will most effectually throw the student upon the resources of his own mind. Without this, the whole apparatus of libraries, and instruments, and specimens, and lectures, and teachers, will be insufficient to secure distinguished excellence. The scholar must form himself, by his own exertions. The advantages furnished by a residence at a college, can do little more than stimulate and aid his personal efforts. The inventive powers are especially to be called into vigorous exercise. . . . In our arrangements for the communication of knowledge, as well as in intellectual discipline, such branches are to be taught as will produce a proper symmetry and balance of character. We doubt whether the powers of the mind can be developed, in their fairest proportions, by studying languages alone, or mathematics alone, or natural or political science alone. As the bodily frame is brought to its highest perfection, not by one simple and uniform motion, but by'a variety of exercises; so the mental faculties are expanded, and invigorated, and adapted to each other, by familiarity with different departments of science. 5 A most important feature in the colleges of this country is, that the students are generally of an age which requires, that a substitute be provided for parental superintendence. When removed from under the roof of their parents, and exposed to the untried scenes of temptation, it is necessary that some faithful and affectionate guardian take them by the hand, and guide their steps. This consideration determines the kind of government which ought to be maintained in our colleges. As it is a substitute for the regulations of a family, it should approach as near to the character of parental control as the circumstances of the case will admit. It should be founded on mutual affection and confidence. It should aim to effect its purpose, principally by kind and persuasive influence; not wholly or chiefly by restraint and terror. Still, punishment may sometimes be necessary. There may be perverse members of a college, as well as of a family. There may be those whom nothing but the arm of law can reach. . . . _ Having now stated what we understand to be the proper object of an education at this college, via. to lay a solid foundation in literature and science; we would ask permission to add a few observations on the means which are employed to effect this object. In giving the course of instruction, it is intended that a due proportion be observed between lectures, and the exercises which are familiarly termed recitations; that is, examinations in a text - book. The great advantage of lectures is, that while they call forth the highest efforts of the ' ' '. - Listening to Dissenting Voices 75 lecturer, and accelerate his advance to professional eminence, they give that light and spirit to the . --f5'ubject, which awaken the interest and ardor of the student. . . . Still it is important, that the '_ ‘. student should have opportunities of retiring by himself, and giving a more commanding direc- V-fion to his thoughts, than when listening to oral instruction. To secure his steady and earnest LI '- efforts, is the great object of the daily examinations or recitations. In these exercises, a textbook is commonly the guide. . . . When he comes to be engaged in the study of his profession, he may find ' his way through the maze, and firmly establish his own opinidns, by taking days or weeks for the _ examination of each separate point. .Text~books are, therefore, not as necessary in this advanced ' _ a stage of education, as in the course at college, where the time allotted to each branch is rarely more than sufficient for the learner to become familiar with its elementary principles. . . . - .We deem it to be indispensable to a proper adjustment of our collegiate system, that there _:should be in it both professors and tutors. There is wanted, on the one hand, the experience of jithose who have been long resident at the institution, and on the other, the fresh and minute '-_inform'ation of those who, having more recently mingled with the students, have a distinct ;-- recolleCtion of their peculiar feelings, prejudices, and habits of thinking. At the head of each great ‘Zdivi'sion of science, it is necessary that there should be a professor, to superintend the department, -:-'t-o.an‘ange the plan of instruction, to regulate the mode of conducting it, and to teach the more :1=impbrtant and difficult parts of the subject. But students in a college, who have just entered on the 5 first elements of science, are not principally occupied with the more abstruse and disputable points. Their attention ought not to be solely or mainly directed to the latest discoveries. They have first to learn the principles which have been in a course of investigation, through the successive ages; and have now become simplified and settled. Before arriving at regions hitherto ' -- j-‘u'rieitplored, they must pass over the intervening cultivated ground. The professor at the head of a department may, therefore, be greatly aided, in some parts of the course of instruction, by those 1 who are not as deeply versed as himself in all the intricacies of the science. Indeed we doubt, :: whether elementary principles are always taught to the best advantage, by those whose re- . ' searches have carried them so far beyond these simpler truths, that they come back to them with .. .teluctance and distaste. . . __ I '_ i In the internal police of the institution, as the students are gathered into one family, it is I '. j3__ - deemed an essential provision, that some of the officers should constitute a portion of this family; if -- being always present with them, not only at their meals, and during the business of the day; but in _ E4 the hours allotted to rest. The arrangement is such, that in our college buildings, there is no room '- _ occupied by students, which is not near to the chamber of one of the officers. . - But the feature in our system which renders a considerable number of tutors indispensable, is __ __ the subdivision of our classes, and the assignment of each portion to the particular charge of one ' ' The course of instruction which is given to the undergraduates in the college, is not designed {j to include professional studies. Our object is not to teach that which is peculiar to any one of the __ :: professions; but to lay the foundation which is common to them all. There are separate schools for ' _. médicine, law, and theology, connected with the college, as well as in various parts of the country; Which'are open for the reception of all who are prepared to enter upon the appropriate studies of their several professions. With these, the academical course is not intended to interfere. ' - But why, it may be asked, should a student waste his time upon studies which have no ._ '-i!I_nmadiate connection with his future profession? . . . In ansWer to this, it may be observed, that I there is no science which does not contribute its aid to professional skill. “Every thing throws light upon every thing." The great object of a collegiate education, preparatory to the study of a Profession, is to give that expansion and balance of the mental poWers, those liberal and compre- __'hen5ive vieWs, and those fine proportions of character, which are not to be found in him whose ideas are always confined to one particular channel. When a man has entered upon the practice of .‘ Protession, the energies of his mind must be given, principally, to its appropriate duties. But if "' 'hlls tlioughts never range on other subjects, if he never looks abroad on the ample domains of maritime and science, there will be a narrowness in his habits of thinking, a peculiarity of Character, which will be sure to mark him as a man of limited views and attainments. Should he be .-di_§tlilguished in his profession, his ignorance on other subjects, and the defects of his education, 76 Revisioning Curriculum in Higher Education will be the more exposed to public observation. On the other hand, he who is not only eminent in professional life, but has also a mind richly stored with general knowledge, has an elevation and . dignity of character, which'gives him a commanding influence in society, and a widely extended _ _ sphere of usefulness. His situation enables him to diffuse the light of science among all classes of the community. Is a man to have no other object, than to obtain a living by professional pursuits? Has he not duties to perform to his family, to his fellow citizens, to his country; duties which : require various and extensive intellectual furniture? . . . _ ' As our course of instruction is not intended to complete an education, in theological, medical, or legal science; neither does it include all the minute details of mercantile, mechanical, or agricul— ' rural concerns. These can never be effectually learned except in the very circumstances in which they are to be practiced. The young merchant must be trained in the counting room, the mechanic, ' in the workshop, the farmer, in the field. But we have, on our premises, no experimental farm or retail shop; no cotton or iron manufactory; no batter’s, or silversmith’s, or coachmaker’s establish— ment. For what purpose, then, it will be asked, are young men who are destined to these ' occupations, ever sent to a college? They should not be sent, as we think, with an expectation of- finishing their education at the college; but with a view of laying a thorough foundation in the principles of science, preparatory to the study of the practical arts. . . . - We are far from believing that theory alone, should be taught in a college. It cannot be effectually taught, except in connection with practical illustrations. . . . To bring down the principles of science to their practical application by the laboring classes, is the office of men of superior education. It is the separation of theory and practice, which has brought reproach upon both. Their union alone can elevate them to their true dignity and value. The man of science is often disposed to assume an air of superiority, when he looks upon the narrow and partial views of the mere artisan. The latter in return laughs at the practical blunders of the former. The defects in the education of both classes would be remedied, by giving them a knowledge of scientific 2 principles, preparatory to practice. - ' We are aware that a thorough education is not within the reach of all. Many, for want of time and pecuniary resources, must be content with a partial course. A defective education is better 3. than none. If a youth can afford to devote only two or three years, to a scientific and professional education, it will be proper for him to make a selection of a few of the most important branches, _ and give his attention exclusively to these. But this is an imperfection, arising from the necessity of .- the case. A partial course of study, must inevitably give a partial education. . . . A partial education is often expedient; a superficial one, never. . . . .- But why, it is asked, should all the students in a college he required to tread in the some steps? . Why should not each one be allowed to select those branches of study which are most to his taste, I which are best adapted to his peculiar talents, and which are most nearly connected with his- intended profession? To this we answer, that our prescribed course contains those subjects only ‘ which ought to be understood, as we think, by every one who aims at a thorough education. They ' are not the peculiarities of any profession or art. These are to be learned in the professional and . practical schools. But the principles of sciences, are the common foundation of all high intellectual : attainments. As in our primary schools, reading, writing, and arithmetic are taught to all, however. different their prospects; so in a college, all should be instructed in those branches of knowledge, of which no one destined to the higher walks of life ought to-be ignorant. What subject which is . now studied here, could be set aside, without evidently marr'mg the system[?] Not to speak particularly, in this place, of the ancient languages; who that aims at a well proportioned and superior education will remain ignorant of the elements of the various branches of the mathemat- ics, or of history and antiquities, or of rhetoric and oratory, or natural philosophy, or astronomy, or chemistry, or mineralogy, or geology, or political economy, or mental and moral philosophy? 3 It is sometimes thought that a student ought not to be urged to the study of that for which he" has no taste or capacity. But how is he to know, whether he has a taste or capacity for a science. before he has even entered upon its elementary truths? If he is really destitute of talent sufficient for these common departments of education, he is destined for some narrow sphere of action. But we are well persuaded, that our students are not so deficient in intellectual powers, as they . sometimes profess to be ; though they are easily made to believe, that they have no capacity for the study of that which they are told is almost wholly useless. I I _ Listenin to Dissentln Voices 77 {i V- When a class have become familiar with the common elements of the several sciences, then is ' ':- '- the Proper time for them to divide ofi‘ to their favorite studies. They can then make their choice from r T. actual'trial. This is now done here, to some extent, in our Junior year. The division might be commenced at an earlier period, and extended farther, provided the qualifications for admission _ ' wattle college, were brought to a higher standard. _ _. - If the view which We have thus far taken of the subject is correct, it will be seen, that the object _. = bfthe system of instruction at this college, is not to give a partial education, consisting of a few " " '1 branches only; nor, on the other hand, to give a superficial education, containing a smattering of almost everything; nor to finish the details of either a professional or practical education,- but to . '3-commence a thorough course, and to carry it as far as the time of residence here will allow. It is intended to occupy, to the best advantage, the four years immediately preceding the study of a _" profession, or of the operations which are peculiar to the higher mercantile, manufacturing, or agricultural establishments. . . . '2 _ Our institution is not modeled exactly after the pattern of European universities. Difference of circumstances has rendered a different arrangement expedient. It has been the policy of most ".monarchical governments, to concentrate the advantages of a superior education irT'a'T'e'w privi- . leged places. In England, for instance, each of the ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge, is I not so much a single institution, as a large number of distinct, though contiguous colleges. But in this country, our republican habits and feelings will never allow a monopoly of literature in any _ one place. There must be, in the union, as many colleges, at least, as states. Nor would we complain of this arrangement as inexpedient, provided that starvation is not the consequence of a ' ' patronage so minutelydivided. We anticipate no disastrous results-from the multiplication of ' colleges, if they can only be adequately endowed. We are not without apprehensions, however, . that a feeble and stinted growth of our national literature, will be the consequence of the very scanty supply of means to most of our public seminaries. . . . Although we do not consider the literary institutions of Europe as faultless models, to be exactly copied by Our American colleges; yet we would be far from condemning every feature, in systems of instruction which have had an origin more ancient than our republican seminaries. We do not suppose that the world has learned absolutely nething, by the experience of ages; that a branch of science, or a mode of teaching, is to be abandoned, precisely because it has stood its ground, after a trial by various nations, and through successive centuries. We believe that our colleges may derive important improvements from the universities and schools in Europe; not by blindly adopting all their measures without discrimination; but by cautiously introducing, with proper modifications, such parts of their plans as are suited to our peculiar situation and character. The first and great improvement which we Wish to see made, is an elevation in the standard of attainment for admission. Until this is effected, We shall only expose ourselves to inevitable failure and ridicule,_by attempting a general imitation of foreign universities. . . . It is said that the public now demand, that the doors should be thrown open to all; that Education ought to be so modified, and varied, as to adapt it to the exigencies of the country, and the prospects of different individuals; that the instruction given to those who are destined to be merchants, or manufacturers, or agriculturalists, should have a special reference to their respec-« tive professional pursuits. The public are undoubtedly right, in demanding that there should be appropriate courses of education, accessible to all classes of youth. And we rejoice at the prospect of ample provision for this purpose, in the improvement of our academics, and the establishment of commercial high schools, gymnasia, lycea, agricultural seminaries, 8m. But do the public insist, that every college shall become a high school, gymnasium, lyceum, and academy? Why should we interfere with these valuable institutions? Why wish to take their business out of their hands? The college has its appropriate object, and they have theirs. . . . What is the characteristic difference between a college and an academy? Not that the former teaches more branches than the latter. There are many academies in the country, whose scheme of studies, at least upon paper, is more various than that of the colleges. But while an academy teaches a little of every thing, the college, by directing its efforts to one uniform course, aims at doing its work with greater precision, and economy of time; just as the merchant who deals in a single class of commodities, or a manufacturer who produces 78 Revisionng Curriculum in Higher Education but one kind of fabrics, executes his business more perfectly, than be whose attention and skill are divided among a multitude of objects. . . . . But might we not, by making the college more accessible to different descriptions of persons, enlarge our numbers, and in that way, increase our income? This might be the operation of the measure, for a very short time, while a degree from the college should retain its present value in public estimation; a value depending entirely upon the character of the education which we give. But the moment it is understood that the institution has deSCended to an inferior standard of attainment, its reputation will sink to a corresponding level. After we shall have become a college in name only, and in reality nothing more than an academy; or half college, and half academy; what will induce parents in various and distant parts of the country, to send us their sons, when they have academies enough in their own neighborhood? There is no magical influence in an act of incorporation, to giVe celebrity to a literary institution, which does not command respect for itself, by the elevated rank of its education. When the college has lost its hold on the public confidence, by depressing its standard of merit, by substituting a partial, for a thorough education, we may expect that it will be deserted by that class of persons who have hitherto been drawn here by high expectations and purposes. Even if we should not immediately suffer in point of numbers, yet we shall exchange the best portion of our students, for others of inferior aims and attainments. As long as we can maintain an elevated character, we need be under no apprehension with respect to numbers. W'thout character, it will be in vain to think of retaining them. It is a hazardous experiment, to act upon the plan of gaining numbers first, and character afterwards. . . . The difficulties with which we are now struggling, we fear would be increased, rather than diminished, by attempting to unite different plans of education. It is far from being our intention to dictate to other colleges a system to be adopted by them. There may be good and sufficient reasons why some of them should introduce a partial course of instruction. We are not sure, that the demand for thorough education is, at present, sufficient to fill all the colleges in the United States, with students who will be satisfied with nothing short of high and solid attainments. But it is to be hoped that, at no very distant period, they will be able to come up to this elevated ground, and leave the business of secondwrate education to the inferior seminaries. The competition of colleges may advance the interests of literature: if it is a competition for excellence, rather than for numbers; if each aims to surpass the others, not in an imposing display, but in the substantial value of its education. . . . Our republican form of government raiders it highly important, that great numbers should enjoy the advantage of a thorough education. On the Eastern continent, the few who are destined to particular departments in political life, may be educated for the purpose; while the mass of the people are left in comparative ignorance. But in this country, where offices are accessible to all who are qualified for them, superior intellectual attainments ought not to be confined to any description of persons. Merchants, manufacturers, and farmers, as well as professional gentlemen, take their places in our public councils. A thorough education ought therefore to be extended to all these classes. It is not sufficient that they be men of sound judgment, who can decide correctly, and give a silent vote, on great national questions. Their influence upon the minds of others is needed; an influence to be produced by extent of knowledge, and the force of eloquence. Ought the speaking in our deliberative assemblies to be confined to a single profession? If it is knowl- edge, which gives us the command of physical agents and instruments, much more is it that which enables us to control the combinations of moral and political machinery. . . . Can merchants, manufacturers, and agriculturists, derive no benefit from high intellectual culture? They are the very classes which, from their situation and business, have the best opportunities for reducing the principles of science to their practical applications. The large estates which the tide of prosperity in our country is so rapidly accumulating, will fall mostly into their hands. Is it not desirable that they should be men of superior education, of large and liberal views, of those solid and elegant attainments, which will raise them to a higher distinction, than the mere possession of property; which will not allow them to hoard their treasures, or waste them in senseless extravagance; which will enable them to adorn society by their learning, to move in the more intelligent circles with dignity, and to make such an application of their wealth, as will be most honorable to themselves, and most beneficial to their country? I I Listening to Dissenting Voices 79 -_ _ _ =‘,Theractive, enterprising character of our population, renders it highly important, that this I "hustle and energy should be directed by sound intelligence, the result of deep thought and early discipline. The greater the impulse to action, the greater is the need of wise and skillful guidance. when nearly all the ship's crew are aloft, setting the topsails, and catching the breezes, it is ,_ _ , necessary there should be a steady hand at helm. Light and moderate teaming is but poorly fitted I -’--'fo'direct the energies of a nation, so widely extended, so intelligent, so powerful in resources, so :.'_;.f'_.."1,a'pidly advancing in population, strength, and opulence. Where a free government gives full _ '- liberty to the human intellect to expand and operate, education should be proportionably liberal '3 :_ and ample. When even our mountains, and rivers, and lakes, are upon a scale which seems to dé'note, that we are destined to be a great and mighty nation, shall our literature be feeble, and - " ' scanty, and superficial? ...
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