STRAYER UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENT POLICY AND GLOBALIZATION (CLIMATE CHANGE) INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION INSTRUCTOR NAME: MARK A. STALLO, Ph.D STUDENT: JOSE SANCHEZ MARCH 22, 2020
Introduction Climate change has positioned itself as one of the problems that define our contemporaneity and, at the same time, a central theme for research and the design of development policies at the international level. Global warming issues have increasingly dominated the academic and institutional development agendas since the early 1990s (Adams, 2009). The 1978 World Climate Conference in Geneva had already stressed the importance of greater attention to the impact of human activity on the climate. Since 1988 the work of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) began with the work of establishing a broad scientific consensus about causal relationships and the implications derived from the two-way relationship between human action and weather patterns. In the academic field, although discourses about the influences of industrial dynamics, the use of resources and the influence of human action on the biosphere go back to the 1960s and 1970s; A concern is taken up years later by one of the philosophical fathers of environmentalism, Bateson (1998), when he claims that the organism that kills its niche kills itself. The creation of academic journals such as Global Environmental Change, which dates back to 1990, is accompanied by an already explicit concern about the potential effects of climate change, as Mitchell's (1990) editorial attests. Finally, the Earth Summit or Rio Conference (1992) on Environment and Development, placed the issue of climate change definitively at the center of academic debate and institutional concerns. However, as several authors point out, for more than a decade the attention of these communities has focused on mitigation, understood as reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Adger, Agrawala, S. et al., 2007; Livermann, 2007 and Satterthwaite, 2007). Adaptation to
climate change as a central issue on political and academic agendas, therefore, is a relatively recent topic on the political agenda and in academic debate. This literature is based on three large dimensions of the problem that correspond broadly to the way in which adaptation to climate change can be related to development issues: i) the opportunity of adaptation for ecologically and environmentally more sustainable development ( MEA, 2005 and Robinson et al., 2006), because healthier and more resilient ecosystems allow better adaptation; ii) the relationship between unresolved development problems, such as inequality in income distribution and opportunities and the adaptability of human groups (Parnell, Simon and Vogel, 2007 and O'Brien and Leichenko, 2007) and iii ) the great relevance of adaptation as a risk reduction practice associated with the effects of climate change at different scales (Wilbanks and Kates, 1999 and White, 2004).