Change19TechEssays.pdf - Games and the Internet Fertile Ground for Cultural Change Edward Castronova 19 key essays on how Internet is changing our lives

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Unformatted text preview: Games and the Internet: Fertile Ground for Cultural Change Edward Castronova 19 key essays on how Internet is changing our lives [email protected] 36 Where is the Internet going? ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 11 39 Knowledge Banking for a Hyperconnected Society Francisco González Cyberflow David Gelertner Chairman and CEO, BBVA Yale University Professor of Computer Science, 59 The Internet of Things: Outlook and Challenges Juan Ignacio Vázquez Professor of Telematics, University of Deusto 83 Who Owns Big Data? Michael Nielsen Writer, scientist, and programmer 103 Cyber Attacks Mikko Hypponen Chief Research Officer of F-Secure Illustration Eva Vázquez 124 Society, the Community, and People ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 127 217 The Impact of the Internet on Society: A Global Perspective Manuel Castells The Way of the Dodo Lucien Engelen Wallis Annenberg Chair Professor of Innovation Center, Radboud University Communication Technology and Society, Medical Centre Director of the Radboud REshape & University of Southern California 235 149 The Internet, Politics and the Politics of Internet Debate Evgeny Morozov Writer and journalist 167 Designing Connections Federico Casalegno Director of the MIT Mobile Experience Lab and Associate Director of the MIT Design Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 191 The Internet and Education Neil Selwyn Professor in the Faculty of Education, Monash University How the Internet Has Changed Everyday Life Zaryn Dentzel CEO, Tuenti 254 328 The Economy, the Company, and Work Communication and Culture ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 257 331 The Internet and Business Dan Schiller The Internet: Changing the Language David Crystal Professor of Library and Information Science Honorary Professor of Linguistics, and of Communication, Bangor University University of Illinois 359 Distributed Innovation and Creativity, Peer Production, and Commons in Networked Economy Yochai Benkler The Internet’s Influence on the Production and Consumption of Culture: Creative Destruction and New Opportunities Paul DiMaggio Berkman Professor of Entrepreneurial Legal A. Barton Hepburn Professor of Sociology and Studies, Harvard Law School Public Affairs, Princeton University 309 397 How Is the Internet Changing the Way We Work? Thomas W. Malone Management, MIT Sloan School First the Media, Then Us: How the Internet Changed the Fundamental Nature of the Communication and Its Relationship with the Audience Peter Hirshberg of Management and director of the Executive, entrepeneur and marketing MIT Center for Collective Intelligence specialist, Silicon Valley 285 Patrick J. McGovern Professor of 466 La comunicación, la cultura Appendix ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 423 468 The Music Industry in an Age of Digital Distribution Patrik Wikström Sites and services that have changed our lives Principal research fellow at the ARC Centre of Excellence of Creative Industries and Innovation, Queensland University of Technology 445 Games and the Internet: Fertile Ground for Cultural Change Edward Castronova Professor of Telecommunications, Indiana University Knowledge Banking for a Hyperconnected Society ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Francisco González Chairman and CEO, BBVA Knowledge Banking for a Hyperconnected Society Francisco González 12/13 Sites and services that have changed my life google.com amazon.com ITunes Siri Kindle Francisco González Chairman and CEO, BBVA Illustration Eva Vázquez 14/15 The Web as I envisaged it, we have not seen it yet. The future is still so much bigger than the past. Tim Berners-Lee Francisco González Knowledge Banking for a Hyperconnected Society BBVA began this series in 2008 in conjunction with the launch of the Frontiers of Knowledge prizes awarded by the BBVA Foundation. In response to the outstanding reception to the first few books, in 2011 we created OpenMind, an online community dedicated to the dissemination of knowledge. OpenMind—which contains all our books to date—is a space for discovery, discussion, and the sharing of ideas in a multidisciplinary environment. Over the past few years, our community has expanded the content and broadened its audience in keeping with what has been its overriding objective from the outset: the sharing of knowledge to build a better future. If I had to identify a single guiding principle for our book series, it would be the desire to understand the major forces that are shaping our world. In the course of this quest, we have published five successive essay collections Knowledge Banking for a Hyperconnected Society This book, [email protected]: 19 Key Essays on How the Internet Is Changing Our Lives, is the sixth installment in BBVA’s annual series devoted to the exploration of the most important issues of our time. We seek out the world’s leading experts and ask them to use a straightforward approach and language accessible to laypeople to explore the best and most current knowledge on topics that matter to us all. Over these past few years, we have been incredibly fortunate to have presented the work of more than 130 authors at the forefront of their fields, authors who have enriched us with their contributions; they are the very essence of our project. I would like at this point to acknowledge all of our contributors and, in particular, those authors who in this year’s issue are new to our community. that address the present frontiers of science, globalization, innovation, the ethical challenges of our time, and our vision of the future. The Internet: The Engine of Change This year, our chosen theme is the Internet, the single most powerful agent of change in recent history. In the words of Arthur C. Clarke, “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” The rapid pace and reach of the changes wrought by the Internet indeed have a touch of magic about them. As a tool available to a fairly wide public, the Internet is only twenty years old, but it is already the key catalyst of the most extensive and fastest technological revolution in history. It is the most extensive because over the past two decades its effects have touched practically every citizen in the world. And it is the fastest because its large-scale adoption is quicker than that of any earlier technology. To put this into perspective—it was 70 years after the invention of the airplane that 100 million people had traveled by air; it took 50 years after the invention of the telephone for 100 million people to use this form of communication. The 100-million user mark was achieved by PCs in 14 years, the Internet in 7. The cycles of adoption of Internet-related technologies are even shorter—Facebook reached 100 million users in 2 years. It is impossible today to imagine the world without the Internet: it enables us to do things that only a few years ago would have been unthinkable, and reaches every facet of our lives. Yet what makes the Internet even more amazing is that it is such a young technology—still developing, still rapidly changing. Everything we have seen so far is just the beginning. First, because Moore’s Law still holds: processing power doubles every 18 months. Any iPhone today has approximately the same capacity as the largest supercomputer of the 1970s. The key difference is that a supercomputer cost $5 million in 1975 dollars, occupied a very large 16/17 The increasing capacity of devices will continue, along with an exponential increase in the speed of data transfer. The global average data transfer speed is about 2 megabytes (MB) per second. But speeds of 100 petabytes (in other words, 100 billion MB per second) have already been achieved. Francisco González room, was completely disconnected from other devices, and its use was restricted to very few people for very limited purposes. In contrast, an iPhone costs less than $400 in today’s money, we can carry it in our pocket, and we can connect it to millions of other devices for any number of purposes. This ties in with the second multiplier effect of the Internet’s influence—increasing connectivity. Internet access has moved from personal computers to mobile phones, on the path toward what has been called the Internet of Things, in which myriad everyday objects will become capable of receiving, generating, and sending information. It is estimated that by 2015 there will be more than 200 billion devices connected to the Internet—four times more than in 2010. In only a few years, this will be the most complex structure ever created by humankind. There will be billions of nodes able to measure anything measurable, extracting and communicating any form of information; and this information will be used to monitor every aspect of the real world. This entails the generation of an almost unimaginable volume of data, growing at an exponential rate. Just for us to get an idea, it is estimated that by 2003 humankind had generated 5 exabytes (5 trillion bytes) of information. Today, however, that figure is reached every two days, such that 90 percent of all available data has been generated in the past two years. And the volume of information generated is growing at a rate of 50 percent a year. This vast wealth of data is potentially highly valuable, but only if the right systems are available to handle it—to capture, store, transfer, analyze, and Knowledge Banking for a Hyperconnected Society This means that 400 DVDs-worth of data could be transmitted every second. Over time, the cost of creating ultra-fast data transfer networks will gradually decrease. Soon any consumer will be able to download a high-definition movie within the space of a second. In parallel to this, technologies enabling mobile wireless Internet access at speeds comparable to broadband continue to advance. visualize the information. This is the field of information and communications technology known as Big Data, which is fast becoming the vital key for the generation of useful knowledge. Big Data holds immense potential to raise productivity, enhance innovation, and, ultimately, improve the way we live. Such huge volumes of data call for equally vast processing power. Cloud computing essentially consists of services involving a large number of computers connected over a network, such as the Internet, to provide the capacity for cheap, flexible access to powerful data storage, processing, and analysis capabilities. As a result of the very speed at which the Internet has developed and the rapid pace of the changes it has brought about, we quite possibly still do not understand the most important and far-reaching implications, nor can we possibly anticipate the transformations the future has in store for us. Eric Schmidt’s famous quote—“The Internet is the first thing that humanity has built that humanity doesn’t understand, the largest experiment in anarchy that we have ever had”—remains as true today as ever. The perception of the immense potential of the Internet to change our lives, the difficulty of predicting how it will evolve, and its free, anarchic, barely controllable character, combine to produce both great hope and profound apprehension. This hope and apprehension are visible in all spheres of human activity— society, politics, culture, and the economy. And changes at the aggregate (macro) level simply mirror the changes taking place at a far more granular and profound stratum. Preferences are shifting, as are people’s daily habits—the way we work, relate to one another, learn, have fun… in short, the Internet is changing the way we live. The Internet may even be changing the way our brains work, modifying the substrate of our memories and thoughts. In recent years, Nicholas Carr 18/19 Francisco González (2008, 2010) has argued that the Internet impairs our cognitive abilities, particularly of concentration and abstraction. These claims have been hotly debated in academia. For instance, Steven Pinker (2010), the distinguished experimental psychologist and cognitive scientist, sharply disagrees with Carr. A survey conducted by the Pew Research Center (2010) found that close to 80 percent of experts thought the Internet had in fact increased human intelligence, against 15 percent believing the opposite. Since the human brain is a malleable organ, it may be the case that the Internet enhances certain faculties at the expense of others. It is indisputably true, however, that the Internet helps us store, manage, and retrieve knowledge—and this, whatever the effect may be on each individual mind, collectively makes us far more intelligent as a society, as a species. Authors in various fields have pointed to the risks, both real and imagined, associated with the Internet. In the economic arena, there are fears that a digital divide will lead to increasing inequality between different industries and geographic regions, with some proving capable of taking advantage of the Internet’s potential while others are left behind. In the political sphere, some are apprehensive that the issue of control over the network and the data it supports will harm the very fabric of democracy by giving a powerful few the ability to manipulate public opinion; there is also concern that a proper balance be kept between protecting the public against cybercrime and cyber terrorism and respecting individual rights and liberties. Yet it is perhaps in the field of culture where we hear the most voices alerting us to the dangers of the Internet, probably because culture and communications are the industries that have most been affected by the advent of the online world that has revolutionized paradigms entrenched for centuries—in many respects, since the invention of the printing press. Knowledge Banking for a Hyperconnected Society Socially, there is an increasing concern about, among other issues, the loss of direct human contact as a result of the overexposure to virtual relationships, with the potential consequence of the impoverishment of people’s emotional lives as well as the loss of social cohesion. Moreover, the privacy of the individual will be at the mercy of political and economic groups capable of exercising some degree of control over the Internet. Over the past two decades, opinion leaders around the globe have heralded the end of culture. In the Spanish-speaking world, the ideas of the Nobel prize-winning author Mario Vargas Llosa (2012) have had a particular influence. Of course, on the other hand there are any number of highly optimistic opinions of how the Internet is affecting us. I already mentioned Steven Pinker and the work being done by the Pew Research Center on the effects of Internet use on human intelligence. And many economists have pointed out the positive effects the Internet has on productivity, as well as its potential to stimulate the development of disadvantaged individuals and geographic regions. Examples include Brynjolfsson and McAfee (2011), Choi and Hoon Yi (2009), and Barro (2003). Yochai Benkler (2006)—a contributor to this book—points out the ways in which the Internet enables us to work together to improve the well-being of society at large. At any rate, the empirical evidence is overwhelming that the strong growth of many of the world’s underdeveloped regions has been supported by the paradigm shifts brought about by the Internet’s development. In the social and political realm, authorities such as Manuel Castells (2009)—also a contributor to this book—emphasize the opportunities provided by the Internet that allow us to become better informed, and to cooperate and coordinate with one another; in his view, these are factors that help raise the quality of democracy and strengthen bonds across society. And, in the cultural field, there are those—such as Lipovetsky and Serroy (2008)—who argue that we are moving toward a “world culture,” which is more democratic, and less elitist, academic, and exclusive. To form an opinion on these issues we should look at what the Internet can and cannot do for us. The Internet was first conceived of—and primarily used—as a vast repository of information. But it has proved to be much more than this. It is a collaborative tool within everybody’s grasp; and it is collaboration that has breathed life into the Internet’s immense potential as a generator of knowledge and a driver of innovation. As Eric Schmidt has said, “None of us is as smart as all of us.” The Internet has broadened the horizon of opportunity for billions of people, particularly in the least developed regions of the world, and has become vital to global prosperity and stability. 20/21 Francisco González The Internet involves risks. Like any other powerful tool, it can be misused. And the truth is that the Internet is enormously powerful—we still don’t even know what it can do, or how it will evolve. We don’t know how to control it. We need to address the tough challenges the Internet poses, particularly in terms of governance, ownership, control, and allocation of responsibilities. In the words of Clay Shirky, one of the most influential thinkers working in the field of the Internet and social media: The whole, “Is the Internet a good thing or a bad thing?” We’re done with that. It’s just a thing. How to maximize its civic value, its public good that’s the really big challenge. (Aitkenhead 2010) In truth, the Internet has always had a presence in our books, simply because the Internet is ubiquitous in our times. Contemporary science, economics, society, politics, and culture cannot be understood without the Internet. I would, however, like to expressly cite three key essays—from our earlier books—that specifically concerned the Internet. Having stood the test of time, all three would perfectly complement the articles presented this year: Janet Abbate’s “The Internet: Global Evolution and Challenges” (2008), Robert Schultz’s “Ethics and the Internet” (2011), and Brian Kahin’s “Knowledge Markets in Cyberspace?” (2009). In this year’s book—as in past editions—we are very fortunate to have with us some of the finest minds in their respective fields, to present to us in an accessible manner their thoughts on a wide spectrum of issues raised or prompted by the Internet. With the purpose of somehow ordering such diverse, interlocking, and interrelated contributions, we have classified the essays into four sections: –  The Future of the Internet –  Society, Community, Individuals Knowledge Banking for a Hyperconnected Society Given the rise of all manner of literature about the Internet and its impact on every last corner of human life, we thought it would be useful to gain some perspective on these issues and the dizzyingly fast changes we are seeing by bringing together a collection of essays by undisputed experts, each in their field and each with their own particular approach. –  The Economy, Business, and Work –  Culture and Communication The first section seeks to predict where the Internet is going—or, what is almost the same thing, where it is taking us. In the first essay included in this section, David Gelernter argues that, since humans are better at handling information when it is arranged in a time-sequenced narrative, it is plausible that the Internet will evolve toward a system that organizes information not—as so far—on a spatial basis, but over time. This will cause the web as we know it to be replaced by a new form of “Cybersphere,” a single data narrative flowing through time (“Worldstream”). The Internet of Things has for a long time been a buzzword without much of a real-world correlate. In his essay, Juan Ignacio Vázquez explains how hyperconnectivity is finally making the Internet of Things a rea...
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