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Unformatted text preview: King Henry VIII Henry VIII (born 1491, ruled 1509-1547). The second son of Henry VII a and Elizabeth of York was one of England's strongest and least popular m monarchs. He was born at Greenwich on June 28, 1491. The first English r ruler to be educated under the influence of the Renaissance, he was a g gifted scholar, linguist, composer, and musician. As a youth he was gay and h handsome, skilled in all manner of athletic games, but in later life he b became coarse and fat. When his elder brother, Arthur, died (1502), he b became heir apparent. He succeeded his father on the throne in 1509, and s soon thereafter he married Arthur's young widow, Catherine of Aragon. D During the first 20 years of his reign he left the shaping of policies l largely in the hands of his great counselor, Cardinal Wolsey (See Wolsey, C Cardinal). By 1527 Henry had made up his mind to get rid of his wife. The only one of Catherine's six children who survived infancy was a sickly g girl, the Princess Mary, and it was doubtful whether a woman could succeed t to the English throne. Then too, Henry had fallen in love with a lady of t the court, Anne Boleyn. When the pope (Clement VII) would not annul his marriage, Henry turned a against Wolsey, deprived him of his office of chancellor, and had him a arrested on a charge of treason. He then obtained a divorce through Thomas C Cranmer, whom he had made archbishop of Canterbury, and it was soon a announced that he had married Anne Boleyn. The pope was thus defied. All ties that bound the English church to R Rome were broken. Appeals to the pope's court were forbidden, all payments t to Rome were stopped, and the pope's authority in England was abolished. In 1 1534 the Act of Supremacy declared Henry himself to be Supreme Head of the o Church of England, and anyone who denied this title was guilty of an act of t treason. Some changes were also made in the church services, the Bible was t translated into English, and printed copies were placed in the churches. T The monasteries throughout England were dissolved and their vast lands and g goods turned over to the king, who in turn granted those estates to n noblemen who would support his policies. In the northern part of the k kingdom the people rose in rebellion in behalf of the monks, but the P Pilgrimage of Grace, as it was called, was put down. Although Henry reformed the government of the church, he refused to a allow any changes to be made in its doctrines. Before his divorce he had o opposed the teachings of Martin Luther in a book that had gained for him f from the pope the title Defender of the Faith--a title the monarch of E England still bears. After the separation from Rome he persecuted with e equal severity the Catholics who adhered to the government of Rome and the P Protestants who rejected its doctrines. Henry was married six times. Anne Boleyn bore the king one child, who b became Elizabeth I. Henry soon tired of Anne and had her put to death. A f few days later he married a third wife, Jane Seymour. She died in a little m more than a year, after having given birth to the future Edward VI. A marriage was then contracted with a German princess, Anne of Cleves, w whom the king had been led to believe to be very beautiful. When he saw her h he discovered that he had been tricked, and he promptly divorced this wife a and beheaded Thomas Cromwell, the minister who had arranged the marriage. H Henry's fifth wife, Catherine Howard, was sent to the block for misconduct. I In 1543 he married his sixth wife, the tactful and pious Catherine Parr. C Catherine, who survived Henry, lived to marry her fourth husband. e During Henry's reign the union of England and Wales was completed ( (1536). Ireland was made a kingdom (1541), and Henry became king of I Ireland. His wars with Scotland and France remained indecisive in spite of s some shallow victories. Although he himself opposed the Reformation, his c creation of a national church marked the real beginning of the English R Reformation. He died on Jan. 28, 1547, and was buried in St. George's C Chapel in Windsor Castle. C ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/09/2011 for the course EDS 103 taught by Professor White during the Spring '10 term at E. Kentucky.
- Spring '10