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Title: The Book of Religions
Author: John Hayward
Release Date: October 24, 2009 [Ebook #30323]
Language: English ***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOOK OF RELIGIONS*** The Book of Religions
Comprising The Views, Creeds, Sentiments, or Opinions,
Of All The Principal Religious Sects In The World
Particularly Of All Christian Denominations
In Europe and America
To Which Are Added Church and Missionary Statistics
Together With Biographical Sketches
By John Hayward
Author of “New England Gazetteer”
Albert Colby And Company.
20 Washington Street.
Lutherans, Or, The Evangelical Lutheran Church.
Historical Notice Of The Church In The United States.
Articles Of Religion.
Cambridge And Saybrook Platforms.
Moravians, Or United Brethren.
Mennonites, Or Harmless Christians.
Disciples Of Christ; Sometimes Called Campbellites, or Reformers.
Friends, or Quakers.
Shakers, Or The United Society Of Believers.
Reformed Dutch Church.
Reformed German Church.
Methodists, Or The Methodist Episcopal Church.
Methodists, Or The Methodist Protestant Church.
Andover Orthodox Creed.
New Haven Orthodox Creed.
Swedenborgians, Or, The New Jerusalem Church.
Miller's Views on the Second Coming of Christ.
Seventh-Day Baptists, Or Sabbatarians,
Quaker Baptists, Or Keithians.
Abelians, or Abelonians.
Family Of Love.
Mormonites, Or The Church Of The Latter-Day Saints.
Tao-Se, or Taou-Tsze.
Mendæans, Mendaites, Mendai Ijahi, Or Disciples Of St. John, That Is, The
Muggletonians. Yezidees, Or Worshippers Of The Devil.
Greek or Russian Church.
Whitefield Calvinistic Methodists.
Free Communion Baptists.
Augsburg Confession Of Faith.
Ancient American Covenant Or Confession Of Faith.
Statistics Of Churches.
Disciples Of Christ.
Other Presbyterian Communities.
Reformed Dutch Church.
Universalists. Missionary Statistics.
First Protestant Missions.
London Missionary Society.
American Board Of Foreign Missions.
Presbyterian Board Of Foreign Missions.
English Baptist Missionary Society.
American Baptist Board Of Foreign Missions.
Society For Propagating The Gospel Among The Indians And Others.
Wesleyan Or English Methodist Missionary Society.
Missions Of The Methodist Episcopal Church.
Seventh-Day Baptist Missionary Society.
French Protestant Missionary Society.
Netherlands Missionary Society.
Scottish Missionary Society.
German Missionary Society.
Church Of Scotland Missions.
Rhenish Missionary Society.
Missions Of The Roman Catholic Church.
Jews' Missionary Society.
Biographical Sketches of the Fathers of the Reformation, Founders of Sects, and
of other Distinguished Individuals Mentioned in this Volume.
Jerome of Prague.
Theodore Beza. Leo X.
Nicholas Louis, Count Zinzendorf.
John Jebb. John Gaspar Christian Lavater.
Footnotes [pg 003] Preface.
A few years since, the Editor of the following pages published a volume of
“Religious Creeds and Statistics;” and, as the work, although quite limited, met
with general approbation, he has been induced to publish another of the same
nature, but on a much larger plan, trusting that it will prove more useful, and
more worthy of public favor.
His design has been, to exhibit to his readers, with the utmost impartiality and
perspicuity, and as briefly as their nature will permit, the views, creeds,
sentiments, or opinions, of all the religious sects or denominations in the world,
so far as utility seemed to require such an exhibition; but more especially to give
the rise, progress, and peculiarities, of all the principal schemes or systems of
religion which exist in the United States at the present day.
The work is intended to serve as a manual for those who are desirous of
acquiring, with as little trouble as possible, a correct knowledge of the tenets or
systems of religious faith, presented for the consideration of mankind;—to
enable them, almost at a glance, to compare one creed or system with another,
and each with the holy Scriptures;—to settle the minds of those who have
formed no definite opinions on religious subjects;—and to lead us all, by
contrasting the sacred truths and sublime beauties of Christianity with the absurd
notions of pagan idolaters, of skeptics, and of infidels, to set a just value on the
doctrines of HIM WHO SPAKE AS NEVER MAN SPAKE.
To accomplish this design, the Editor has obtained, from the most intelligent and
candid among the living defenders of each denomination, full and explicit
statements of their religious sentiments—such as they believe and teach. He is
indebted to the friends of some new sects or parties in philosophy and religion,
for an account of their respective views and opinions. With regard to [pg 004]
anterior sects, he has noticed, from the best authorities, as large a number as is thought necessary for the comparison of ancient with modern creeds.
The Church and Missionary Statistics are believed to be as accurate as can be
constructed from materials which annually undergo greater or less changes.
The Biographical Sketches are derived from the most authentic sources. While
they convey useful knowledge in regard to the fathers and defenders of the
various systems of religious faith, they may also stimulate our readers to the
practice of those Christian virtues and graces which adorned the lives of many of
them, and render their names immortal.
A few only of the works from which valuable aid has been received, can be
mentioned:—Mosheim and McLaine's Ecclesiastical History; Gregory and
Ruter's Church History; Encyclopædia Americana; Brown's Encyclopedia of
Religious Knowledge; Adams's View of Religions, and History of the Jews;
Benedict's History of all Religions; Evans's Sketches; Buck's and Henderson's
Theological Dictionaries; Eliot's, Allen's, and Blake's Biographical Dictionaries;
Davenport; Watson; Grant's Nestorians, Coleman's Christian Antiquities; Ratio
Disciplinæ; Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, &c.
To clergymen and laymen of all denominations, who have assisted the Editor in
presenting their various views with clearness and fairness; to the secretaries of
the several missionary boards; to editors of religious journals, and to other
persons who have kindly furnished documents for the Statistics and Biographical
Sketches, he tenders acknowledgments of unfeigned gratitude.
While the Editor assures the public that the whole has been prepared with much
diligence and care, and with an entire freedom from sectarian zeal or party bias,
he cannot but indulge the hope that his “Book of Religions” will prove
acceptable and beneficial to the community, as imbodying a great variety of facts
on a subject of deep concern, worthy of the exercise of our highest faculties, and
requiring our most charitable conclusions. [pg 005] Index.
Abelians, or Abelonians, 243
Addison, Joseph, 417
Agricola, John, 370
American Missions, 336
Ancient American Covenant, 308
Andover Orthodox Creed, 138
Apostles' Creed, 102
Arminians, 115 Arminius, James, 373
Assembly's Catechism, 141
Athanasian Creed, 102
Augsburg Confession, 302
Bacon, Francis, 407
Baptists, 182, 311, 340
Baptist Missions, English, 339
Baxter, Richard, 376
Beza, Theodore, 366
Bible Chronology, 175
Biographical Sketches, 350
Bishops, Episcopal, 314
Boyle, Robert, 412
Brown, Robert, 373
Brownists, 200 Bucer, Martin, 360
Bullinger, Henry, 363
Burnet, Gilbert, 429
Calvin, John, 365
Calvinists, 11, 313
Cambridge Platform, 48
Charles V., 405
Chauncey, Charles, 385
Christian Connection, 295, 313
Christianity, Progress of, 432
Chronology, Bible, 175
Church Government, 20
Church Statistics, 311
Clarke, John, 387
Clarke, Richard, 399
Congregationalists, 20, 313
Courtney, William, 384
Creed, Andover, 138
Athanasian, 102 Augsburg, 302
New Haven, 142
Cumberland Presbyterians, 25
Disciples of Christ, 58, 314
Disciples of St John, 284
Dissenters. See Puritans.
Doddridge, Philip, 420
Dutch Reformed Church, 88
Elizabeth, Princess, 411
English Baptist Missions, 339
—— Methodist Missions, 343
Epicureans, 244 Episcopalians, 26, 314, 341
Family of Love, 259
Fighting Quakers, 162
Fox, George, 377
Free Communion Baptists, 300
Free-Will Baptists, 190, 312, 341
French Missions, 346
Friends, or Quakers, 64, 319
Genevieve, 162, 428
German Missions, 346
German Reformed Church, 90
Glass, John, 383
Government, Church, 20
Greek Church, 288
Hale, Matthew, 408
Harmless Christians, 57
Hicksites, 74, 319
High Churchmen, 308 Higginson, Francis, 310, 374
Hooker, Richard, 385
Hopkins, Samuel, 397
Huntingdon, Lady Selina, 395
Huss, John, 354
Hutchinson, Ann, 389
Indian Missions, 342
Jebb, John, 401
Jerome of Prague, 352
Jews, 202, 319, 347
Justin Martyr, 368
Keith, George, 383
Knipperdolings, 283 Knox, John, 363
Latter-Day Saints, 260
Lavater, John G. C., 402
Lee, Ann, 381
Leo X., 367
Locke, John 415
London Missionary Society, 335
Luther, Martin, 355
Lutherans, 9, 320
Maimonides, Moses, 203, 370
Martyr, Peter, 362
Mayhew, Jonathan, 398
Melancthon, Philip, 361
Menno, Simonis, 372
Methodists, Episcopal, 117, 321
Protestant, 123, 321
Methodists, Primitive, 305
Methodists' Missions, 344 Views of Perfection, 274
Miller's Views on the Second Coming of Christ, 170
Missionary Statistics, 333
Missions, American Foreign, 336
Missions, Indian, 342
Molinos, Michael, 389
Moravians, 49, 333
Murray, John, 423
Necessarians. See Materialists.
Netherland Missions, 346
New Haven Orthodox Creed, 142
New Jerusalem Church, 150
Newton, Isaac, 403
Nicene Creed, 105
Nonjurors, 294 Non-Resistants, 247
Oberlin Views of Sanctification, 278
Œcolampadius, John, 355
Orthodox Creeds, 132
Penn, William, 378
Popes of Rome, 326
Presbyterians, 22, 322
Presbyterian Missions, 338
Priestley, Joseph, 400
Primitive Christians, 290
Methodists, 305 Princess Elizabeth, 411
Progress of Christianity, 432
Protestant Methodists, 123, 321
Purves, James, 401
Quakers, or Friends, 64
Quaker Baptists, 193
Ranters. See Seekers.
Reformed Churches, 88
Reformed Dutch Church, 88, 324
German Church, 90
Rhenish Missions, 347
Roman Catholics, 102, 324, 347
Russian Church, 288 Sabbatarians, 191
Sanctification, Views on, 278
Sandeman, Robert, 396
Saybrook Platform, 48
Seabury, Samuel, 33, 398
Schools, Theological, 432
Scottish Missions, 346, 347
Servetus, Michael, 371
Seventh-Day Baptists, 191, 312, 345
Six-Principle Baptists, 192
Skeptics, 245 Socinius, Faustus, 372
Spinoza, Benedict, 380
Statistics of Churches, 311
of Missions, 333
Succession of Bishops, 315
Swedenborgians, 150, 330
Taylor's (Dr.) Views, 142
Theological Schools, 432
Tillotson, John, 402
Tunkers, or Tumblers, 55
Unitarians, 196, 331
United Brethren, 49
United Society of Believers, 75
Universalists, 95, 331 Waldenses, 279
Watts, Isaac, 418
Wesley, John, 390
Wesleyan Missions, 343
Westminster Catechism, 141
Whitefield, George, 393
Whitefield Methodists, 293
Wickliffe, John, 350
Williams, Roger, 386
Winchester, Elhanan, 425
Worshippers of the Devil, 285
Xavier, Francis, 161, 372
Yezidees, or Worshippers of the Devil, 285
Zanchius, Jerome, 366
Zinzendorf, Count, 383
Zuinglius, Ulricus, 359 Zuinglians, 246 [pg 009] Lutherans, Or, The Evangelical Lutheran
This denomination adheres to the opinions of Martin Luther, the celebrated
The Lutherans, of all Protestants, are those who differ least from the Romish
church, as they affirm that the body and blood of Christ are materially present in
the sacrament of the Lord's supper, though in an incomprehensible manner: this
they term consubstantiation. They likewise represent some rites and institutions,
as the use of images in churches, the vestments of the clergy, the private
confession of sins, the use of wafers in the administration of the Lord's supper,
the form of exorcism in the celebration of baptism, and other ceremonies of the
like nature, as tolerable, and some of them useful. The Lutherans maintain, with
regard to the divine decrees, that they respect the salvation or misery of men in
consequence of a previous knowledge of their sentiments and characters, and not
as founded on the mere will of God. See Augsburg Confession of Faith.
Towards the close of the last century, the Lutherans began to entertain a greater
liberality of sentiment than they had before adopted, though in many places they
persevered longer in despotic principles than other Protestant churches. Their
public teachers now enjoy an unbounded liberty of dissenting from the decisions
of those symbols of creeds which were once deemed almost infallible rules of
faith and practice, and [pg 010] of declaring their dissent in the manner they
judge most expedient.
The capital articles which Luther maintained are as follow:—
1. That the holy Scriptures are the only source whence we are to draw our
religious sentiments, whether they relate to faith or practice. (See 2 Tim. 3:1517. Prov. 1:9. Isa. 8:20. Luke 1:4. John 5:39; 20:31. 1 Cor 4:6, &c.) 2. That justification is the effect of faith, exclusive of good works, and that faith
ought to produce good works, purely in obedience to God, and not in order to
our justification. (See Gal. 2:21.)
3. That no man is able to make satisfaction for his sins. (See Luke 17:10.)
In consequence of these leading articles, Luther rejected tradition, purgatory,
penance, auricular confession, masses, invocation of saints, monastic vows, and
other doctrines of the church of Rome.
The external affairs of the Lutheran church are directed by three judicatories,
viz., a vestry of the congregation, a district or special conference, and a general
synod. The synod is composed of ministers, and an equal number of laymen,
chosen as deputies by the vestries of their respective congregations. From this
synod there is no appeal.
The ministerium is composed of ministers only, and regulates the internal or
spiritual concerns of the church, such as examining, licensing, and ordaining
ministers, judging in controversies about doctrine, &c. The synod and
ministerium meet annually.
Confession and absolution, in a very simple form, are practised by the American
Lutherans; also confirmation, by which baptismal vows are ratified, and the
subjects become communicants. Their liturgies are simple and impressive, and
the clergy are permitted to use extempore prayer. See Statistics of Churches. [pg 011] Calvinists.
This denomination of Christians, of the Congregational order, are chiefly
descendants of the English Puritans, who founded most of the early settlements
in New England. They derive their name from John Calvin, an eminent reformer.
The Calvinists are divided into three parties,—High, Strict, and Moderate. The
High Calvinists favor the Hopkinsian system. The Moderate Calvinists embrace
the leading features of Calvin's doctrine, but object to some parts, particularly to
his views of the doctrines of predestination, and the extent of the design of
Christ's death. While they hold to the election of grace, they do not believe that
God has reprobated any of his creatures. They believe that the atonement is, in
its nature, general, but in its application, particular; and that free salvation is to
be preached to sinners indiscriminately. The doctrines of the Strict Calvinists are
those of Calvin himself, as established at the synod of Dort, A. D. 1618, and are
as follow, viz.:—
1. They maintain that God hath chosen a certain number of the fallen race of
Adam in Christ, before the foundation of the world, unto eternal glory, according
to his immutable purpose, and of his free grace and love, without the least
foresight of faith, good works, or any conditions performed by the creature; and
that the rest of mankind he was pleased to pass by, and ordain to dishonor and
wrath, for their sins, to the praise of his vindictive justice. (See Prov. 16:4. Rom.
9: from ver. 11 to end of chap.; 8:...
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