The-Book-of-Religions - The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Book of Religions by John Hayward This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost

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Unformatted text preview: The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Book of Religions by John Hayward This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: The Book of Religions Author: John Hayward Release Date: October 24, 2009 [Ebook #30323] Language: English ***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOOK OF RELIGIONS*** The Book of Religions Comprising The Views, Creeds, Sentiments, or Opinions, Of All The Principal Religious Sects In The World Particularly Of All Christian Denominations In Europe and America To Which Are Added Church and Missionary Statistics Together With Biographical Sketches By John Hayward Author of “New England Gazetteer” Boston: Albert Colby And Company. 20 Washington Street. 1860 Contents Preface. Index. Lutherans, Or, The Evangelical Lutheran Church. Calvinists. Hopkinsians. Arians. Socinians. Humanitarians. Sectarians. Church Government. Presbyterians. Cumberland Presbyterians. Episcopalians. Historical Notice Of The Church In The United States. Articles Of Religion. Cambridge And Saybrook Platforms. Moravians, Or United Brethren. Tunkers. Mennonites, Or Harmless Christians. Disciples Of Christ; Sometimes Called Campbellites, or Reformers. Friends, or Quakers. Shakers, Or The United Society Of Believers. Reformation. Reformed Churches. Reformed Dutch Church. Reformed German Church. Restorationists. Universalists. Roman Catholics. Bereans. Materialists. Arminians. Methodists, Or The Methodist Episcopal Church. Methodists, Or The Methodist Protestant Church. Protestants. Sabellians. Sandemanians. Antinomians. Pelagians. Pre-Adamites. Predestinarians. Orthodox Creeds. Andover Orthodox Creed. New Haven Orthodox Creed. Swedenborgians, Or, The New Jerusalem Church. Fighting Quakers. Harmonists. Dorrelites. Osgoodites. Rogerenes. Whippers. Wilkinsonians. Aquarians. Baxterians. Miller's Views on the Second Coming of Christ. Come-Outers. Jumpers. Baptists. Anabaptists. Free-Will Baptists. Seventh-Day Baptists, Or Sabbatarians, Six-Principle Baptists. Quaker Baptists, Or Keithians. Pedobaptists. Anti-Pedobaptists. Unitarians. Brownists. Puritans. Bourignonists. Jews. Indian Religions. Deists. Atheists. Pantheists. Mahometans. Simonians. Pagans. Satanians. Abelians, or Abelonians. Supralapsarians. Dancers. Epicureans. Skeptics. Wickliffites. Diggers. Zuinglians. Seekers. Wilhelminians. Non-Resistants. Southcotters. Family Of Love. Hutchinsonians. Mormonites, Or The Church Of The Latter-Day Saints. Daleites. Emancipators. Perfectionists. Waldenses. Allenites. Johnsonians. Donatists. Se-Baptists. Re-Anointers. Tao-Se, or Taou-Tsze. Quietists. Knipperdolings. Mendæans, Mendaites, Mendai Ijahi, Or Disciples Of St. John, That Is, The Baptist. Muggletonians. Yezidees, Or Worshippers Of The Devil. Greek or Russian Church. Primitive Christians. Trinitarians. Millenarians. Whitefield Calvinistic Methodists. Nonjurors. Nonconformists. Christian Connection. Puseyites. Free Communion Baptists. Transcendentalists. Augsburg Confession Of Faith. Armenians. Primitive Methodists. Novatians. Nestorians. High-Churchmen. Ancient American Covenant Or Confession Of Faith. Statistics Of Churches. Baptists. Free-Will Baptists. Seventh-Day Baptists. Christian Connection. Calvinistic Congregationalists. Disciples Of Christ. Episcopalians. Friends. Jews. Lutherans. Protestant Methodists. Methodists. Presbyterians. Other Presbyterian Communities. Reformed Dutch Church. Roman Catholics. Swedenborgians. Unitarians. Universalists. Missionary Statistics. First Protestant Missions. Moravian Missions. London Missionary Society. American Board Of Foreign Missions. Presbyterian Board Of Foreign Missions. English Baptist Missionary Society. American Baptist Board Of Foreign Missions. Free-Will Baptists. Episcopal Missions. Society For Propagating The Gospel Among The Indians And Others. Wesleyan Or English Methodist Missionary Society. Missions Of The Methodist Episcopal Church. Seventh-Day Baptist Missionary Society. French Protestant Missionary Society. Netherlands Missionary Society. Scottish Missionary Society. German Missionary Society. Church Of Scotland Missions. Rhenish Missionary Society. Missions Of The Roman Catholic Church. Jews' Missionary Society. Indians. Biographical Sketches of the Fathers of the Reformation, Founders of Sects, and of other Distinguished Individuals Mentioned in this Volume. John Wickliffe. Jerome of Prague. John Huss. John Œcolampadius. Martin Luther. Ulriucus Zuinglius. Martin Bucer. Philip Melancthon. Peter Martyr. Henry Bullinger. John Knox. John Calvin. Jerome Zanchius. Theodore Beza. Leo X. Justin. Arius. Athanasius. Moses Maimonides. John Agricola. Michael Servetus. Simonis Menno. Francis Xavier. Faustus Socinus. Robert Brown. James Arminius. Francis Higginson. Richard Baxter. George Fox. William Penn. Benedict Spinoza. Ann Lee. John Glass. George Keith. Nicholas Louis, Count Zinzendorf. William Courtney. Richard Hooker. Charles Chauncey. Roger Williams. John Clarke. Ann Hutchinson. Michael Molinos. John Wesley. George Whitefield. Selina Huntingdon. Robert Sandeman. Samuel Hopkins. Jonathan Mayhew. Samuel Seabury. Richard Clarke. Joseph Priestly. James Purves. John Jebb. John Gaspar Christian Lavater. John Tillotson. Isaac Newton. Charles V. Francis Bacon. Matthew Hale. Princess Elizabeth. Robert Boyle. John Locke. Joseph Addison. Isaac Watts. Philip Doddridge. John Murray. Elhanan Winchester. Saint Genevieve. Gilbert Burnet. Theological Schools. Footnotes [pg 003] Preface. A few years since, the Editor of the following pages published a volume of “Religious Creeds and Statistics;” and, as the work, although quite limited, met with general approbation, he has been induced to publish another of the same nature, but on a much larger plan, trusting that it will prove more useful, and more worthy of public favor. His design has been, to exhibit to his readers, with the utmost impartiality and perspicuity, and as briefly as their nature will permit, the views, creeds, sentiments, or opinions, of all the religious sects or denominations in the world, so far as utility seemed to require such an exhibition; but more especially to give the rise, progress, and peculiarities, of all the principal schemes or systems of religion which exist in the United States at the present day. The work is intended to serve as a manual for those who are desirous of acquiring, with as little trouble as possible, a correct knowledge of the tenets or systems of religious faith, presented for the consideration of mankind;—to enable them, almost at a glance, to compare one creed or system with another, and each with the holy Scriptures;—to settle the minds of those who have formed no definite opinions on religious subjects;—and to lead us all, by contrasting the sacred truths and sublime beauties of Christianity with the absurd notions of pagan idolaters, of skeptics, and of infidels, to set a just value on the doctrines of HIM WHO SPAKE AS NEVER MAN SPAKE. To accomplish this design, the Editor has obtained, from the most intelligent and candid among the living defenders of each denomination, full and explicit statements of their religious sentiments—such as they believe and teach. He is indebted to the friends of some new sects or parties in philosophy and religion, for an account of their respective views and opinions. With regard to [pg 004] anterior sects, he has noticed, from the best authorities, as large a number as is thought necessary for the comparison of ancient with modern creeds. The Church and Missionary Statistics are believed to be as accurate as can be constructed from materials which annually undergo greater or less changes. The Biographical Sketches are derived from the most authentic sources. While they convey useful knowledge in regard to the fathers and defenders of the various systems of religious faith, they may also stimulate our readers to the practice of those Christian virtues and graces which adorned the lives of many of them, and render their names immortal. A few only of the works from which valuable aid has been received, can be mentioned:—Mosheim and McLaine's Ecclesiastical History; Gregory and Ruter's Church History; Encyclopædia Americana; Brown's Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; Adams's View of Religions, and History of the Jews; Benedict's History of all Religions; Evans's Sketches; Buck's and Henderson's Theological Dictionaries; Eliot's, Allen's, and Blake's Biographical Dictionaries; Davenport; Watson; Grant's Nestorians, Coleman's Christian Antiquities; Ratio Disciplinæ; Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, &c. To clergymen and laymen of all denominations, who have assisted the Editor in presenting their various views with clearness and fairness; to the secretaries of the several missionary boards; to editors of religious journals, and to other persons who have kindly furnished documents for the Statistics and Biographical Sketches, he tenders acknowledgments of unfeigned gratitude. While the Editor assures the public that the whole has been prepared with much diligence and care, and with an entire freedom from sectarian zeal or party bias, he cannot but indulge the hope that his “Book of Religions” will prove acceptable and beneficial to the community, as imbodying a great variety of facts on a subject of deep concern, worthy of the exercise of our highest faculties, and requiring our most charitable conclusions. [pg 005] Index. Abelians, or Abelonians, 243 Addison, Joseph, 417 Agricola, John, 370 Allenites, 280 American Missions, 336 Anabaptists, 190 Ancient American Covenant, 308 Andover Orthodox Creed, 138 Antinomians, 128 Anti-Pedobaptists, 196 Apostles' Creed, 102 Aquarians, 168 Arians, 18 Arius, 368 Armenians, 303 Arminians, 115 Arminius, James, 373 Assembly's Catechism, 141 Athanasian Creed, 102 Athanasius, 368 Atheists, 217 Augsburg Confession, 302 Bacon, Francis, 407 Baptists, 182, 311, 340 Quaker, 193 Baptist Missions, English, 339 Baxter, Richard, 376 Baxterians, 169 Bereans, 109 Beza, Theodore, 366 Bible Chronology, 175 Biographical Sketches, 350 Bishops, Episcopal, 314 Bourignonists, 201 Boyle, Robert, 412 Brown, Robert, 373 Brownists, 200 Bucer, Martin, 360 Bullinger, Henry, 363 Burnet, Gilbert, 429 Calvin, John, 365 Calvinists, 11, 313 Cambridge Platform, 48 Campbellites, 58 Charles V., 405 Chauncey, Charles, 385 Christian Connection, 295, 313 Christianity, Progress of, 432 Chronology, Bible, 175 Church Government, 20 Church Statistics, 311 Clarke, John, 387 Clarke, Richard, 399 Come-Outers, 177 Congregationalists, 20, 313 Courtney, William, 384 Creed, Andover, 138 Apostles', 102 Athanasian, 102 Augsburg, 302 New Haven, 142 Nicene, 105 Orthodox, 132 Cumberland Presbyterians, 25 Daleites, 272 Dancers, 244 Deists, 215 [pg 006] Diggers, 246 Disciples of Christ, 58, 314 Disciples of St John, 284 Dissenters. See Puritans. Doddridge, Philip, 420 Donatists, 281 Dorrelites, 164 Dutch Reformed Church, 88 Elizabeth, Princess, 411 Emancipators, 272 English Baptist Missions, 339 —— Methodist Missions, 343 Epicureans, 244 Episcopalians, 26, 314, 341 Essenes, 202 Family of Love, 259 Fighting Quakers, 162 Fox, George, 377 Free Communion Baptists, 300 Free-Will Baptists, 190, 312, 341 French Missions, 346 Friends, or Quakers, 64, 319 Genevieve, 162, 428 German Missions, 346 German Reformed Church, 90 Glass, John, 383 Glassites, 126 Government, Church, 20 Greek Church, 288 Hale, Matthew, 408 Harmless Christians, 57 Harmonists, 163 Hicksites, 74, 319 High Churchmen, 308 Higginson, Francis, 310, 374 Hooker, Richard, 385 Hopkins, Samuel, 397 Hopkinsians, 13 Humanitarians, 19 Huntingdon, Lady Selina, 395 Huss, John, 354 Hutchinson, Ann, 389 Hutchinsonians, 259 Independents, 20 Indian Missions, 342 Religions, 210 Statistics, 347 Jebb, John, 401 Jerome of Prague, 352 Jews, 202, 319, 347 Johnsonians, 280 Jumpers, 181 Justin Martyr, 368 Keith, George, 383 Keithians, 193 Knipperdolings, 283 Knox, John, 363 Latter-Day Saints, 260 Lavater, John G. C., 402 Lee, Ann, 381 Leo X., 367 Locke, John 415 London Missionary Society, 335 Luther, Martin, 355 Lutherans, 9, 320 Mahometans, 220 Maimonides, Moses, 203, 370 Martyr, Peter, 362 Materialists, 112 Mayhew, Jonathan, 398 Mendæans, 284 Melancthon, Philip, 361 Mennonites, 57 Menno, Simonis, 372 Methodists, Episcopal, 117, 321 Protestant, 123, 321 [pg 007] Methodists, Primitive, 305 Methodists' Missions, 344 Views of Perfection, 274 Miller's Views on the Second Coming of Christ, 170 Millenarians, 292 Missionary Statistics, 333 Missions, American Foreign, 336 Missions, Indian, 342 Molinos, Michael, 389 Moravians, 49, 333 Mormonites, 260 Muggletonians, 284 Murray, John, 423 N. Necessarians. See Materialists. Nestorians, 306 Netherland Missions, 346 New Haven Orthodox Creed, 142 New Jerusalem Church, 150 Newton, Isaac, 403 Nicene Creed, 105 Nonconformists, 294 Nonjurors, 294 Non-Resistants, 247 Novatians, 305 Oberlin Views of Sanctification, 278 Œcolampadius, John, 355 Orthodox Creeds, 132 Osgoodites, 166 Pantheists, 219 Pagans, 234 Pedobaptists, 193 Pelagians, 130 Penn, William, 378 Perfectionists, 274 Pharisees, 202 Popes of Rome, 326 Pre-Adamites, 131 Predestinarians, 132 Presbyterians, 22, 322 Cumberland, 25 Presbyterian Missions, 338 Priestley, Joseph, 400 Primitive Christians, 290 Methodists, 305 Princess Elizabeth, 411 Progress of Christianity, 432 Protestants, 125 Protestant Methodists, 123, 321 Missions, 333 Puritans, 200 Purves, James, 401 Puseyites, 299 Quakers, or Friends, 64 Quaker Baptists, 193 Quietists, 283 Ranters. See Seekers. Re-Anointers, 282 Reformation, 85 Reformed Churches, 88 Reformed Dutch Church, 88, 324 German Church, 90 Rhenish Missions, 347 Restorationists, 91 Rogerenes, 166 Roman Catholics, 102, 324, 347 Russian Church, 288 Sabbatarians, 191 Sabellians, 125 Sadducees, 202 Sanctification, Views on, 278 Sandemanians, 126 Sandeman, Robert, 396 Satanians, 243 Saybrook Platform, 48 Seabury, Samuel, 33, 398 Schools, Theological, 432 Scottish Missions, 346, 347 Se-Baptists, 281 Sectarians, 20 [pg 008] Seekers, 247 Servetus, Michael, 371 Seventh-Day Baptists, 191, 312, 345 Shakers, 75 Simonians, 233 Six-Principle Baptists, 192 Skeptics, 245 Socinius, Faustus, 372 Socinians, 19 Southcotters, 255 Spinoza, Benedict, 380 Statistics of Churches, 311 of Missions, 333 Succession of Bishops, 315 Supralapsarians, 243 Swedenborg, 150 Swedenborgians, 150, 330 Tao-Se, 282 Taylor's (Dr.) Views, 142 Theological Schools, 432 Tillotson, John, 402 Transcendentalists, 301 Trinitarians, 290 Tunkers, or Tumblers, 55 Unitarians, 196, 331 United Brethren, 49 United Society of Believers, 75 Universalists, 95, 331 Waldenses, 279 Water-Drinkers, 168 Watts, Isaac, 418 Wesley, John, 390 Wesleyan Missions, 343 Westminster Catechism, 141 Whippers, 167 Whitefield, George, 393 Whitefield Methodists, 293 Wickliffe, John, 350 Wickliffites, 245 Wilhelminians, 247 Wilkinsonians, 167 Williams, Roger, 386 Winchester, Elhanan, 425 Worshippers of the Devil, 285 Xavier, Francis, 161, 372 Yezidees, or Worshippers of the Devil, 285 Zanchius, Jerome, 366 Zinzendorf, Count, 383 Zuinglius, Ulricus, 359 Zuinglians, 246 [pg 009] Lutherans, Or, The Evangelical Lutheran Church. This denomination adheres to the opinions of Martin Luther, the celebrated reformer. The Lutherans, of all Protestants, are those who differ least from the Romish church, as they affirm that the body and blood of Christ are materially present in the sacrament of the Lord's supper, though in an incomprehensible manner: this they term consubstantiation. They likewise represent some rites and institutions, as the use of images in churches, the vestments of the clergy, the private confession of sins, the use of wafers in the administration of the Lord's supper, the form of exorcism in the celebration of baptism, and other ceremonies of the like nature, as tolerable, and some of them useful. The Lutherans maintain, with regard to the divine decrees, that they respect the salvation or misery of men in consequence of a previous knowledge of their sentiments and characters, and not as founded on the mere will of God. See Augsburg Confession of Faith. Towards the close of the last century, the Lutherans began to entertain a greater liberality of sentiment than they had before adopted, though in many places they persevered longer in despotic principles than other Protestant churches. Their public teachers now enjoy an unbounded liberty of dissenting from the decisions of those symbols of creeds which were once deemed almost infallible rules of faith and practice, and [pg 010] of declaring their dissent in the manner they judge most expedient. The capital articles which Luther maintained are as follow:— 1. That the holy Scriptures are the only source whence we are to draw our religious sentiments, whether they relate to faith or practice. (See 2 Tim. 3:1517. Prov. 1:9. Isa. 8:20. Luke 1:4. John 5:39; 20:31. 1 Cor 4:6, &c.) 2. That justification is the effect of faith, exclusive of good works, and that faith ought to produce good works, purely in obedience to God, and not in order to our justification. (See Gal. 2:21.) 3. That no man is able to make satisfaction for his sins. (See Luke 17:10.) In consequence of these leading articles, Luther rejected tradition, purgatory, penance, auricular confession, masses, invocation of saints, monastic vows, and other doctrines of the church of Rome. The external affairs of the Lutheran church are directed by three judicatories, viz., a vestry of the congregation, a district or special conference, and a general synod. The synod is composed of ministers, and an equal number of laymen, chosen as deputies by the vestries of their respective congregations. From this synod there is no appeal. The ministerium is composed of ministers only, and regulates the internal or spiritual concerns of the church, such as examining, licensing, and ordaining ministers, judging in controversies about doctrine, &c. The synod and ministerium meet annually. Confession and absolution, in a very simple form, are practised by the American Lutherans; also confirmation, by which baptismal vows are ratified, and the subjects become communicants. Their liturgies are simple and impressive, and the clergy are permitted to use extempore prayer. See Statistics of Churches. [pg 011] Calvinists. This denomination of Christians, of the Congregational order, are chiefly descendants of the English Puritans, who founded most of the early settlements in New England. They derive their name from John Calvin, an eminent reformer. The Calvinists are divided into three parties,—High, Strict, and Moderate. The High Calvinists favor the Hopkinsian system. The Moderate Calvinists embrace the leading features of Calvin's doctrine, but object to some parts, particularly to his views of the doctrines of predestination, and the extent of the design of Christ's death. While they hold to the election of grace, they do not believe that God has reprobated any of his creatures. They believe that the atonement is, in its nature, general, but in its application, particular; and that free salvation is to be preached to sinners indiscriminately. The doctrines of the Strict Calvinists are those of Calvin himself, as established at the synod of Dort, A. D. 1618, and are as follow, viz.:— 1. They maintain that God hath chosen a certain number of the fallen race of Adam in Christ, before the foundation of the world, unto eternal glory, according to his immutable purpose, and of his free grace and love, without the least foresight of faith, good works, or any conditions performed by the creature; and that the rest of mankind he was pleased to pass by, and ordain to dishonor and wrath, for their sins, to the praise of his vindictive justice. (See Prov. 16:4. Rom. 9: from ver. 11 to end of chap.; 8:...
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