Chemistry Exam 3 Study Guide

Chemistry Exam 3 Study Guide - Chemistry Exam 3 Study Guide...

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Chemistry Exam 3 Study Guide The Hydrogen Atom Spherical Polar Coordinates (theta-from z to x, phi- from x to y, r) ψ (r, θ , φ ) = R (r)Y ( θ , φ ) Number of nodes in the hydrogen wave function increases as n increases Number of radial nodes is n-l-1 (number of total nodes is n-1, angular nodes is just l) Orbitals become larger as the energy increases Radial probability- square of the wave function, probability per unit volume at a given distance form the nucleus (exponential decay) Radial Probability Density- the total probability of being a certain distance from the nucleus (bell shaped) D orbitals are more compact than s and p orbitals (reason why the transition elements are very similar) There’s more penetration by the electrons in the s and p orbitals leading to lower energy General Statements: For a given value of l, increasing n increases the average distance of the electron from the nucleus As r- 0 the wavefunction vanishes for everything except s-oribtals, so s electrons have a significant probability of being found near the nucleus n- principal quantum number- the energy of the electrons in the various orbitals l- azimuthal or angular momentum quantum number has values n-1, determines the shape of the orbital m- goes from –l to l magnetic quantum number, determines the angle of the orbital s- spin quantum number Pauli Exclusion Principle- two electrons can be in the same orbital if their spins are not parallel. Maximum of two electrons per orbital HUnd’s rule- energy is minimized when the spins of electrons in different orbitals are parallel Alkali metals- one s-electron Alkaline earth- two s-electrons
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This note was uploaded on 01/10/2011 for the course HSOC 1 taught by Professor Tresh during the Spring '10 term at UPenn.

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Chemistry Exam 3 Study Guide - Chemistry Exam 3 Study Guide...

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