Chemistry Exam 3 Study Guide
The Hydrogen Atom
Spherical Polar Coordinates (thetafrom z to x, phi from x to y, r)
ψ
(r,
θ
,
φ
)
=
R (r)Y (
θ
,
φ
)
Number of nodes in the hydrogen wave function increases as n increases
Number of radial nodes is nl1 (number of total nodes is n1, angular nodes is
just l)
Orbitals become larger as the energy increases
Radial probability square of the wave function, probability per unit volume
at a given distance form the nucleus (exponential decay)
Radial Probability Density the total probability of being a certain distance
from the nucleus (bell shaped)
D orbitals are more compact than s and p orbitals (reason why the transition
elements are very similar)
There’s more penetration by the electrons in the s and p orbitals leading to
lower energy
General Statements:
For a given value of l, increasing n increases the average distance of
the electron from the nucleus
As r 0 the wavefunction vanishes for everything except soribtals, so s
electrons have a significant probability of being found near the nucleus
n principal quantum number the energy of the electrons in the various
orbitals
l azimuthal or angular momentum quantum number has values n1,
determines the shape of the orbital
m goes from –l to l magnetic quantum number, determines the angle of the
orbital
s spin quantum number
Pauli Exclusion Principle two electrons can be in the same orbital if their
spins are not parallel. Maximum of two electrons per orbital
HUnd’s rule energy is minimized when the spins of electrons in different
orbitals are parallel
Alkali metals one selectron
Alkaline earth two selectrons
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 Spring '10
 tresh
 Atom, Electron, Atomic orbital, Chemical bond, orbitals Valence Bond Thoery

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