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Unformatted text preview: Midterm Study Guide Format: Identifying figures, people, ideas Very short essays (5-8 sentences) Major Transitions/Transformations in Science in the Course Babylonians and Pre-Socratics: • Names o C.P. Snow- The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution , breakdown of communication between the "two cultures" of modern society — the sciences and the humanities — was a major hindrance to solving the world's problems o Milesians Thales (624BCE)- Search for underlying element, water, geometry, astronomy, eclipses. When the universe is tied to human beings, world becomes unpredictable.. There are no steadfast rules for how people will behave. Have to make explanations according to what there is so its not unpredictable. Anaximander (610BCE)- Apeirion- something with no limits, no clear determinants, can transform itself into everything else. Had his own model of the universe. Anaximenes- Air is the source of all things o Pythagoras (560BCE)- Mathematikoi, the world is subject to a numerical order- what you can eat, what you can do, what your moral code is. Worship the numerical proportion of things. Music is important because it has a number meaning. Pythagorean theorem. There’s a central fire moving the universe. The proportions of the orbits can be tied to math of music. Number theory, music theory, astronomy can all be tied together. o Heraclitus- “you can never step into the same river twice”- the world is constantly changing, all is flux, nothing stays still, nothing endures but change o Parmenides (510BCE)- Change is an illusion. Being is one, unitary, and stable. Universe is unchanging. Nothing comes from nothing. Motion and change are an illusion. How could something produce its opposite? o Zeno- Zeno’s paradox- Achilles versus the tortoise, he continually has to cross half the space to catch up, there are an infinite number of these spaces so he can’t- motion is impossible o Empedocles (490BCE)- 4 elements earth, air, water, and fire. Love and strife. o Democritus-laughing philosopher, there are tiny corpuscles that explain everything that comes into the universe. Atoms exist in a void, they are uncuttable, chance plays a big role in the universe • Ideas o Atomism- theory of Democritus Hellenistic/Greek Science: • Names o The Agora- Sophists traveling traders o Socrates (470BCE)- know thyself- make people wonder if they were living the right lives, if they had the right priorities, living the right life filled with truth. People pursuing wealth and power upset by Socrates’ idea. There’s a shift (pre to post Socratic) because philosophers become concerned with the ethics of nature. o Plato (428BCE) The t ruth is something we are born with, but we have forgotten it, the goal of life is to remember the things we have forgotten The effort of “dialectic” challenging t ruths one against the other to arrive at the fundamental t ruth “The Academy”- a school, only Geometers may enter (people who study...
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This note was uploaded on 01/10/2011 for the course HSOC 1 taught by Professor Tresh during the Spring '10 term at UPenn.
- Spring '10
- The Republic