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Unformatted text preview: Nov. 9, 2009 Ant 360 Summary of Ch. 3: Modes of Production In this chapter, Wolf discusses the ways in which people develop social labor and different modes of production. Wolf starts his concept by using Marxs two axiomatic understandings of the human condition. The first principle is that Homo sapiens are a species that is part of nature. The second principle is that Homo sapiens are connected to each other through social relationships. Wolf maintains that the way they are organized socially governs the way they confront and transform nature (73). There is a difference between work and labor. Work is defined as the physical activity of humans using their energy to create energy. Labor is different in the sense that is a social process that bonds humans together within their society through production. There are three types of modes of production that Wolf discusses: capitalist mode, t ributary mode, and kin-ordered mode. The first mode, capitalist, did not arise until the 18 th century, well after the other two modes of production. The capitalist mode came to be when monetary wealth was enabled to buy labor power (77). Those who were able to buy labor power controlled the means of production, while those who couldnt buy labor, had to sell their labor for a wage. The capitalist mode was all about producing as much product and surplus as possible. The two ways to do this were either to keep wages as low as possible or to raise the amount of...
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- Winter '09