Lecture 9 - Metal Optics An Introduction

Lecture 9 - Metal Optics An Introduction - What happened at...

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What happened at the previous lectures ? Microparticles Particles with d ≈λ ( λ -independent scattering, white clouds) Insulators (Rayleigh Scattering, blue sky. .) Semiconductors (Size dependent absorption, fluorescence. .) Metals… Resonant absorption at ω sp Particles with d >> λ ( Intuitive ray-picture useful) Light interaction with small objects (d < λ ) Dielectric photonic crystal • Molding the flow of light
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Metal Optics: An Introduction Majority of optical components based on dielectrics • High speed, high bandwidth ( ω ), but… Some fundamental problems! n CORE n CLAD Diffraction Limit Optical mode in waveguide > λ 0 /2n CORE • Does not scale well Needed for large scale integration Problems Bending losses J. D. Joannopoulos, et al, Nature, vol.386, p.143-9 (1997) Solutions ? Some: Photonic functionality based on metals?!
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Plasmon-Polaritons What is a plasmon ? Compare electron gas in a metal and real gas of molecules Metals are expected to allow for electron density waves: plasmons Strong local field Metal Dielectric z I E H Note: This is a TM wave Surface plasmon Bulk plasmon Metals allow for EM wave propagation above the plasma frequency • Sometimes called a surface plasmon-polariton (strong coupling to EM field) They become transparent!
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Local Field Intensity Depends on Wavelength Long wavelength Short wavelength z I z I D << λ o Characteristics plasmon-polariton Strong localization of the EM field High local field intensities easy to obtain Applications: Guiding of light below the diffraction limit (near-field optics) Non-linear optics Sensitive optical studies of surfaces and interfaces •B io-s ensors • Study film growth •……
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R.M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, J. Phys. Chem. B 104 , 6095-6098 (2000) Laser excitation λ = 532 nm 8.1 μ m Au rod Light at the other end Plasmon-Polariton Propagation in Au rod
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Plasmon-Polariton Excitation using a Launch Pad J.R. Krenn et al., Europhys.Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002)
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50 nm • Array of 50 nanometer diameter Au particles spaced by 75 nanometer • Information transport at speeds and densities exceeding current electronics • Enables communication between nanoscale devices M.L. Brongersma, et al., Phys. Rev. B 62 , R16356 (2000) S.A. Maier et al., Advanced materials
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Lecture 9 - Metal Optics An Introduction - What happened at...

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