Introduction to Genetic Analysis 32

Introduction to Genetic Analysis 32 - 44200_02_p27-72...

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31 2.1 Autosomal inheritance Each pair of Mendel’s plant lines can be said to show a character difference —a contrasting difference between two lines of organisms (or between two or- ganisms) in one particular character. Such contrasting differences for a particular character are the starting point for any genetic analysis. The differing lines (or individuals) represent the different forms that the character may take: the differing forms themselves can be called character forms, variants, or phenotypes. The term phenotype (derived from Greek) literally means the “form that is shown”; it is the term used by geneticists today. Even though such words as gene and phenotype were not coined or used by Mendel, we shall use them in describing Mendel’s results and hypotheses. We turn now to Mendel’s analysis of the lines breeding true for flower color. In one of his early ex- periments, Mendel pollinated a purple-flowered plant with pollen from a white-flowered plant. We call the plants from the pure lines the
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