Introduction to Genetic Analysis 84

Introduction to Genetic Analysis 84 - 44200_03_p73-114...

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Visible chromosomal landmarks Chromosomes themselves are highly varied in size and shape. Cytogeneticists are able to identify speciFc chro- mosomes under the microscope by studying these dis- tinctive features, which act as chromosomal “land- marks.” In this section, we shall consider such features, which allow cytogeneticists to distinguish one chromo- some set from another, as well as one chromosome from another. CHROMOSOME NUMBER Different species have highly characteristic numbers of chromosomes. Chromosome number is the product of two other numbers, the hap- loid number and the number of sets. The haploid num- ber, represented as n , is the number of chromosomes in the basic genomic set. In most fungi and algae, the cells of the visible structures have only one chromosome set and therefore are called haploid. In most familiar an- imals and plants, the cells of the body have two sets of chromosome; such cells are called diploid and represented as 2 n . The range of the haploid number
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This note was uploaded on 01/10/2011 for the course BIOL BIOL taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '08 term at Aberystwyth University.

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