Introduction to Genetic Analysis 97

Introduction to - 44200_03_p73-114 1:48 PM Page 96 96 Chapter 3 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance 3.4 Chromosome behavior and inheritance

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96 Chapter 3 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance 3.4 Chromosome behavior and inheritance patterns in eukaryotes Equipped with our knowledge of the general structure and behavior of chromosomes, we can now interpret the inheritance patterns of the previous chapter more clearly. The basic life cycles Any general model for patterns of inheritance must take into account an organism’s life cycle. Eukaryotes have three basic types of life cycles, as follows: Diploids: organisms that are in the diploid state for most of their life cycle (Figure 3-31); that is, for most of their life cycle they consist of cells having two sets of homologous chromosomes. Animals are examples of organisms with this type of life cycle; in most species diploid cells arise from a fertilized egg. Meiosis takes place in special diploid meiocytes set aside for this purpose in the gonads (testes and ovaries) and results in haploid gametes. These are the sperm and eggs that unite when the egg is fertilized, producing the zygote. The zygote
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This note was uploaded on 01/10/2011 for the course BIOL BIOL taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '08 term at Aberystwyth University.

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