15.In the double-strand break model, list all the stagesat which exo- and endonucleases act.16.Differentiate between the elements of the followingpairs:a.Transitions and transversionsb.Synonymous and neutral mutationsc.Missense and nonsense mutationsd.Frameshift and nonsense mutations17.Why are frameshift mutations more likely than mis-sense mutations to result in proteins that lack nor-mal function?18.Diagram two different mechanisms for deletion for-mation. What type of information provided fromDNA sequencing can distinguish between thesepossibilities?19.Describe two spontaneous lesions that can lead tomutations.20.Compare the mechanism of action of 5-bromouracil(5-BU) with ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) in caus-ing mutations. Explain the speci±city of mutagenesisfor each agent in light of the proposed mechanism.21.Compare the two different systems required for therepair of AP sites and the removal of photodimers.
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