bch1049_Assign_2 - (a Write the reaction for breaking all...

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BCH 1049 Assignment Two – Due: 16 March 2007 1. (a) The average distance from the nucleus of a 3 s electron in a chlorine atom is smaller than that for a 3 p electron. Which orbital is higher in energy? (b) Predict if it would require more or less energy to remove a 3 s electron from a chlorine atom, compared to a 2 p electron. Explain your answer. 2. Write the condensed electron configuration for the following atoms, and state how many unpaired electrons exist in each: (a) Ga, (b) V, (c) I. 3. Use electron configuration to explain the observation that the first ionization energy of phosphorus is greater than that of sulfur. 4. Explain each of the following statements: (a) S 2– is larger than O 2– . (b) K + is larger than Ca 2+ . 5. Consider benzene (C 6 H 6 ) in the gas phase.
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Unformatted text preview: (a) Write the reaction for breaking all the bonds in C 6 H 6 ( g ), and use the following data to determine the standard enthalpy change for this reaction: ∆ H ° f [H( g )] = 217.94 kJ/mol ; ∆ H ° f [C( g )] = 718.4 kJ/mol ; ∆ H ° f [C 6 H 6 ( g )] = 82.9 kJ/mol. (b) Write a reaction that corresponds to breaking all the carbon-carbon bonds (NOT the carbon-hydrogen bonds) in C 6 H 6 ( g ). (c) By combining the reactions given in (a) and (b) and using the average bond enthalpy for C–H ( D (C–H) = 413 kJ/mol), calculate the average bond enthalpy for the carbon-carbon bonds in C 6 H 6 ( g ). (d) Compare your answer for part (c) to the values for C–C single (348 kJ/mol) and C=C double (614 kJ/mol) bonds....
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