1PeriodicPropertiesof the ElementsPeriodic Propertiesof the Elements(Chapter 7)What’s Ahead:1.Effective Nuclear Charge Effective Nuclear Charge 2.2.Trends and Changes: Atomic Size, Ionization Energy, Trends and Changes: Atomic Size, Ionization Energy, Electron AffinityElectron Affinity3.Periodic Trends Periodic Trends and PropertiesPeriodicPropertiesof the ElementsEffective Nuclear Charge•In a many-electron atom, electrons are both attracted to the nucleus and repelled by other electrons, so the nuclear charge that an electron experiences depends on both factors.•Valence electrons are attracted to the nucleus, but inner (core) electrons will weaken this attraction. •In other words, core electrons ‘shield’ or ‘screen’ the outer electrons from the effect of the nucleus. Simplified estimateof nuclear charge for sodium:
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