chap25_bch1049_07MCWC2b

chap25_bch1049_07MCWC2b - Organic and Biological Chemistry...

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1 Organic and Biological Chemistry Organic and Biological Chemistry (Chapter 25) What’s Ahead: 1. 1. Structures and Nomenclature of Organic Compounds Structures and Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 2. 2. Hydrocarbons: Alkane, Alkene, Hydrocarbons: Alkane, Alkene, Alkyne Alkyne and Aromatic and Aromatic 3. Functional Groups: Properties and Reactivity Functional Groups: Properties and Reactivity 4. 4. Isomers and Isomers and Chirality Chirality 5. 5. Proteins, Carbohydrates and Nucleic Acids Proteins, Carbohydrates and Nucleic Acids Organic Chemistry • The chemistry of carbon compounds. • Carbon has the ability to form long chains (catenation). • This property enables the formation of large biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. • C–C and C–H bonds have low polarity; molecules that are soluble in polar solvents have polar groups.
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2 Structure of Organic Compounds • There are three common geometries in organic compounds: ¾ Tetrahedral ¾ Trigonal planar ¾ Linear (a) Tetrahedral carbon in methane; C is bonded to 4 other atoms; (b) trigonal planar C in formaldehyde; bonded to 3 other atoms; (c) linear C in acetonitrile; bonded to 2 atoms. Organic and Biological Chemistry Hydrocarbons • Contain only C and H atoms and stable carbon-carbon bonds. • Four basic types: ¾ Alkanes ¾ Alkenes ¾ Alkynes ¾ Aromatic hydrocarbons
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3 Alkanes • Saturated hydrocarbons: contain highest possible number of H atoms per C atom. • Only carbon-carbon single bonds ( σ bonds). σ Bonds: symmetric overlap of two orbitals along the line joining the nuclei (internuclear axis). C C C 2 p H 2 p 2 p 1 s Organic and Biological Chemistry Formulas of Alkanes • Left: Lewis structure or structural formula of butane. • This is not convenient to write out…
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4 Organic and Biological Chemistry …so condensed formulas are often used. Therefore, general formula is: C n H 2 n +2 (n = 4) Formulas of Alkanes Organic and Biological Chemistry • Boiling point increases with length of chain. • Determined by van der Waals (dispersion) force. • e.g. nonane, C n H 2 n +2 (n = 9): C 9 H 20 Properties of Alkanes
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5 Organic and Biological Chemistry Structures of Alkanes • Carbon atoms in alkanes have tetrahedral geometry. • 109.5 ° bond angles. Organic and Biological Chemistry Structures of Alkanes • Only C—C single bonds exist in alkanes. • Free rotation can occur about the C—C bonds.
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6 Organic and Biological Chemistry Structural Isomers Same molecular formulas, but atoms are bonded in different order: straight-chain or branched hydrocarbons: Organic and Biological Chemistry Organic Nomenclature • Three parts to a compound name: ¾ Base: Shows number of carbon atoms in the longest continuous chain.
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7 Organic and Biological Chemistry Organic Nomenclature • Three parts to a compound name: ¾ Base: Shows number of carbon atoms in the longest continuous chain.
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chap25_bch1049_07MCWC2b - Organic and Biological Chemistry...

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