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Unformatted text preview: tware Development Projects for Maximum Productivity," which appeared in the IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (Vol. SE-10, January, pp. 27– 35). This paper was based on ideas that grew out of discussions with T. Lance Barlow and W. Douglas Tiner during the 1970s. At that time monitoring the cost performance ratio and the schedule performance ratio, discussed in Chapter 4, was not widely practiced even though these concepts had been introduced in the project management literature earlier than this. At Brown and Root, where the author was working at that time, a few projects were tracking the cost performance ratio and the schedule performance ratio. Also at that time, the relationship between the cost performance ratio and productivity was not clearly understood. By the mid-1970s, some projects were using the rudimentary productivity measurement method of compar - Page 126 ing achieved unit rates for tasks with the budgeted unit rates , as is explained in the next section. But, since this measure involved quantification, it was not clear how this technique could be generalized to summary-level control packages in the WBS, since the unit of measure for a control package is independent of the units of measure for the tasks it contains. Also at that time, it was not understood that budget variances, as defined in Chapter 3, should be separated into quantification variances and productivity variances. This caused the earned value calculations to be performed in a nonuniform manner over the project lifetime, because the budget that project management was using for project control was continually being corrupted by the addition of productivity variance components. This tended to make the earned value look better as the productivity got worse. Nor was it understood that productivity measurement should be undertaken systematically for the purpose of discovering the cause of productivity deviations. Since that time, the author has made progress in clarifying these concepts both in papers and in project management computer systems for personal computers. The first of these project management systems was copyrighted in 1983 but not distributed widely. It had much of the functionality of the Modern Project toolset provided with this book. But the limitations of 1983vintage personal computer technology made it somewhat harder to use than Modern Project. This early version was enhanced in the mid-1980s and used in the management of the Space Station Data Management System (DMS) testbed program. Recently it has been totally rewritten, and this new version is Modern Project. 5.1— Unit Rates In the early days of the modern project management era, the idea of comparing actual unit rates to budgeted unit rates was already in use, although it was not practiced widely. For in - Page 127 stance, at Brown and Root in the mid-1970s, we found that only a handful of the scores of projects managed used this technique at that time. To understand this technique, it is necessary to understand what is meant by unit rates. The dictionary definition of productivity is "output per man-hour." Since tasks have both a quantity budget and a man-hour budget, we can divid...
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This note was uploaded on 01/11/2011 for the course ACC 9 taught by Professor Yeetan during the Spring '10 term at Sunway University College.
- Spring '10