Conference 11 Answers

Conference 11 Answers - LING 201: Introduction to...

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LING 201: Introduction to Linguistics 11th Conference: Semantics 2 – Solution I. Entailment and Presupposition Use your judgments on projection from under negation (or the judgments of an informant) to decide whether the implication from (a) to (b) in the pairs of examples below is an entailment or a presupposition . Example 1 : (a) It was John who broke the type writer (b) Someone broke the type writer (a) implies (b) (c), the negation of (a), also implies (b). Therefore, the implication from (a) to (b) is a presupposition . (c) It wasn’t John who broke the type writer Example 2 : (a) John broke the type writer (b) Someone broke the type writer (a) implies (b) (c), the negation of (a), does not imply (b). Therefore, the implication from (a) to (b) is an entailment . (c) John didn’t break the type writer (1) (a) Dave is angry about Jim’s stupid mistake. (b) Jim made a stupid mistake. (a) implies (b) (c), the negation of (a), also implies (b). Therefore, the implication from (a) to (b) is a presupposition . (c) Dave isn’t angry about Jim’s stupid mistake. (2) (a) Zaire and Alaska have the same size. (b) Zaire is as big as Alaska. (a) implies (b) (c), the negation of (a), does not imply (b). Therefore, the implication from (a) to (b) is an entailment . (c) Zaire and Alaska don’t have the same size. (3) (a) The minister blames her secretary for leaking the memo to the press. (b) The memo was leaked to the press.
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(a) implies (b) (c), the negation of (a), also implies (b). Therefore, the implication from (a) to (b) is a presupposition . (c) The minister doesn’t blame her secretary for leaking the memo to the press. (4) (a) I liked exactly two movies from Spain. (b) I liked more than one movie from Spain. (a) implies (b) (c), the negation of (a), does not imply (b). Therefore, the implication from (a) to (b) is an entailment . (c) I didn’t like exactly two movies from Spain. Note : If your judgments concerning some of the (c) sentences are different, you will have drawn different conclusion as to the type of implication. In the exam, the assumed judgment will always be provided.
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Conference 11 Answers - LING 201: Introduction to...

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