BME80H - random lecture notes

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Lecture #1- History and Social Impact (chapter 1, p 7-14; links) I. History of Genetics A. The Early Beginnings: pre-Mendel 1. (8000B.C.) Transition from nomadic (hunter-gatherers) to agrarian culture due to selective breeding of plants and animals. People had a practical understanding only 2. Early ideas on HOW the traits are transmitted: Hippocrates (400B.C.) On Generation All parts of the body, particularly the brain, produce substances "humors" that get collected together to provide the material for heredity. Humors from the male and female were blended to produce the offspring What if someone was missing an arm, would the kid be born with no arms? Aristotle (384-322B.C.) argued against Hippocrates' ideas -Loss of body parts is not inherited -Sometimes people look more like distant relatives than their parents -Traits sometimes disappear in one generation and reappear in the next 3. (1600s) Preformation hypothesis dominated biology . Preformed people = homunculus Spermastic model or ovistic (person inside a sperm or egg) How do we get traits from both parents then? 4. (1700s) Lamarck formulates his "Doctrine of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics" Traits are modified before they are passed to offspring. Material (like “humors”) = gemmules Darwin suggested that gemmules can be dormant. 5. (late 1800s) Weismann shows that acquired traits are not inherited Mouse w/ cut off tail x mouse with tail = all mice with tails, all generations henceforth had all normal tail length Did this for 20 generations Put to rest the doctrine of inheritance of acquired traits 6. (1761-1869) Flurry of work being done to produce plant and animal hybrids for study and improved breeding. 1 Greater variability in the 2 nd generation (F2) than in the first (F1) 2 Species defined as those variants that when crossed, produce fertile offspring B. Classical Genetics (Mendelian Genetics) (1866) Gregor Mendel's principles of heredity published in "Experiments with Plant Hybrids" link . His experiments in pea plants revealed how a trait is passed through the inheritance of "factors" now known to be genes. -Initially ignored, then rediscovered in 1902. -Led to the Laws of Inheritance
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C. Other important findings by Mendel's successors (Handout = "Mendel's successors") link 1900-1953 Converging on DNA D. Molecular Genetics (Handout = "Molecular Genetics") link 1953-1976, Expanding the Boundries E. Modern Genetics: Using recombinant DNA technology link 1977-present, Dawn of Biotech The advent of recombinant DNA technology paved the way for huge advances in biomedicine and agriculture. 1. Gene product production, making proteins from cloned genes (table 14.1) produced in 1977 Genentech produces the human protein somatostatin (in bacteria) 2. DNA and identity (DNA Forensics Information link ) Forensics, paternity, victim ID 1 st used in criminology in 1985 Dr. Alec Jeffreys 3. Correction of genetic defects by replacing the mutant gene with a good copy (gene
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BME80H - random lecture notes

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