BME80H Lecture 1

BME80H Lecture 1 - Lecture#1 History and Social...

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Lecture #1- History and Social Impact (chapter 1, p 7-14; links) I. History of Genetics A. The Early Beginnings: pre-Mendel 1. (8000B.C.) Transition from nomadic (hunter-gatherers) to agrarian culture due to selective breeding of plants and animals. People had a practical understanding only 2. Early ideas on HOW the traits are transmitted: Hippocrates (400B.C.) On Generation All parts of the body, particularly the brain, produce substances "humors" that get collected together to provide the material for heredity. Humors from the male and female were blended to produce the offspring What if someone was missing an arm, would the kid be born with no arms? Aristotle (384-322B.C.) argued against Hippocrates' ideas -Loss of body parts is not inherited -Sometimes people look more like distant relatives than their parents -Traits sometimes disappear in one generation and reappear in the next 3. (1600s) Preformation hypothesis dominated biology . Preformed people = homunculus Spermastic model or ovistic (person inside a sperm or egg) How do we get traits from both parents then? 4. (1700s) Lamarck formulates his "Doctrine of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics" Traits are modified before they are passed to offspring. Material (like “humors”) = gemmules Darwin suggested that gemmules can be dormant. 5. (late 1800s) Weismann shows that acquired traits are not inherited Mouse w/ cut off tail x mouse with tail = all mice with tails, all generations henceforth had all normal tail length Did this for 20 generations Put to rest the doctrine of inheritance of acquired traits 6. (1761-1869) Flurry of work being done to produce plant and animal hybrids for study and improved breeding.
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