MUSC80A - Historical Background Music in Pre-Islamic...

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Historical Background Music in Pre-Islamic Society Early Islamic Epoch (around 632-1256) Rise of Sufism (Islamic Mysticism) Postmedieval Practices (roughly 14 th -19 th centuries) Liturgical and Folk Practices Urban Music and Modernism Used lute Takht – “platform” Umm Kulthum – distinctive voice, live/stage performances so audiences got to know her Urban Musical Instruments ‘Oud Nay Qanun Riqq Kamanjah (Violin) Tablah The ‘Ud The ‘Ud is a pear-shaped, short-necked, fretless instrument. It has five double courses of nylon or gut and metal-wound silk strings. The ‘Ud is known as amir al-tarab, ‘the prince of enchantment’. The Qanun The Qanun is a flat zither-type instrument. Its twenty-six triple courses of strings are made of nylon or gut and metal-wound silk strings. The performer plucks the strings with short horn plectra placed between the tip of each index finger and a small metal ring. The bridge of the qanun rests on segments of fish skin covering small square spaces on the wood top. The Nay The Nay is an open-ended, obliquely blown flute made from reed, not bamboo. The Nay exhibits a breathy tone and is extremely expressive. The Riqq The riqq, also known as daff, is a small tambourine. Traditionally covered with a goat or fish skin head, stretched over a wooden frame inlaid with mother of pearl. The riqq has five sets of two pairs of brass cymbals. The cymbals are what produces the exciting jingle sound. The Tablah or Darabukkah
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The Tablah is a vase-shaped hand drum. It is one of the most commonly played of the percussion instruments. The Buzuq The buzuq is a long-necked fretted lute with metal strings. It is played in both folk and urban contexts. It resembles the Turkish Sax from which it appears to have been derived and is usually associated with itinerant Gypsies. Tradition and Modernity After World War II, westernization continued Enlarged music ensembles and increasing influence of electronic and media blah blah Recent Trends Late twentieth-century: Aghani (pl. Uhgniyah) ‘songs’, seemed to cater to mass tastes.
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