Ch5_B_RxnTypes - Section 4.6—CD-ROM Ch. 4 Ch. We will...

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Unformatted text preview: Section 4.6—CD-ROM Ch. 4 Ch. We will look at CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN WATER Precipitation Reactions The “driving force” is the formation of an insoluble compound — a precipitate. Acid-Base Reactions • The “driving force” is the formation of water. NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) ---> NaOH( aq) HCl( aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(liq) NaCl( aq) O(liq) • Net ionic equation OH-(aq) + H+(aq) aq) aq) ---> H 2O(liq) O(liq) • This applies to ALL reactions of STRONG acids and bases. EXCHANGE REACTIONS AX + BY AY + BX Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2 KI(aq) -----> Pb(NO aq) KI(aq) 2 KNO3(aq) + PbI2(s) aq) Net ionic equation Pb2+(aq) + 2 I-(aq) ---> PbI2(s) aq) aq) The anions The exchange places between cations. cations. Pb(NO3) 2(aq) + 2 KI(aq) Pb(NO aq) KI(aq) ----> PbI2(s) + 2 KNO3 (aq) aq) Acid-Base Reactions • A-B reactions are sometimes called NEUTRALIZATIONS because the solution because is neither acidic nor basic at the end. • The other product of the A-B reaction is a SALT, MX. Gas-Forming Reactions • This is primarily the chemistry of metal carbonates. CO2 and water ---> H 2CO3 and H2CO3(aq) + Ca2+ ---> aq) ---> 2 H+(aq) aq) + CaCO 3(s) (limestone) Adding acid reverses this reaction. MCO 3 + acid ---> CO 2 + salt acid salt GasForming Reactions CaCO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) ---> aq) aq) 2 CaSO4(s) + H2CO3(aq) aq) Carbonic acid is unstable and forms CO 2 & H2O H2CO3(aq) aq) ---> CO2 + water water (Antacid tablet has citric acid + NaHCO3) HX + MOH ---> MX + H2O Mn+ comes from base & Xn- comes from acid comes comes This is one way to make compounds! Page 1 ...
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