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Unformatted text preview: Review sheet for CHM 106 Final exam CH 13-18 Review Questions 1. Explain the difference between the average rate of reaction and the instantaneous rate of reaction. 2. Explain the difference between integrated rate law for a reaction and the integrated rate law for a reaction. What relationship does each kind of rate law express? 3. What are the two requirements for a proposed mechanism to be valid for a given reaction? 4. What is an intermediate within a reaction mechanism? 5. Explain the difference between homogeneous catalysis and heterogeneous catalysis? 6. Many heterogeneous catalyst are deposited on high surface area supports. Why is a large area important in heterogeneous catalysis? 7. What is the significance of the equilibrium constant? What does a large equilibrium constant tell us about a reaction? A small one? 8. Why are the concentrations of solids and liquids omitted from equilibrium expressions? 9. A chemist t rying to synthesize a particular compound attempts two different synthesis reactions. The equilibrium constants for the two reactions are 23.3 and 2.2x10 4 at room temperature. However, upon carrying out both reactions for 15 minutes, the chemist finds that the reaction with the smaller equilibrium constant produced more of the desired product. Explain how this might be possible. 10. What is the definition of the reaction quotient (Q) for a reaction? What does Q measure? 11. In what direction will a reaction proceed for each of the following conditions: (a) Q<K, (b) Q>K (c) Q=K 12. What is the effect of a temperature change on a chemical reaction initially at equilibrium? How does the effect differ for an exothermic compared to an endothermic one? 13. What is the Arrhenius definition of an acid? Of a base? 14. What is the Br nsted-Lowry definition of acid? Of a base? 15. What is the Lewis definition of an acid? Of a base? 16. In most solution containing a strong or weak acid, the auto-ionization of water can be neglected when computing [H 3 O + ]. Explain why this is so. 17. What is the common ion effect? 18. Suppose that a buffer contains equal amounts of a weak acid and its conjugate base. What happens to the relative amounts of the weak acid and conjugate base upon the addition of a small amount of strong acid to the buffer? What happens upon addition of a small amount of strong base? 19. What factors influence the effectiveness of a buffer? What are the characteristics of an effective buffer? 20. Explain the difference between the endpoint and the equivalence point in a titration. 21. What is qualitative analysis? How is qualitative analysis different from quantitative analysis? 22. Explain why the entropy of a gas increases when it expands into a vacuum....
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