Chapter4Lecture

Chapter4Lecture - Chapter 4: Reactions in aqueous solution...

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6 Copyright: 2010 Prof. Magde Chapter 4: Reactions in aqueous solution • Although neutral molecules can certainly react in water, there is little that is special about them, so we don’t talk about them. What is interesting is the reaction of ions. • A critical issue is that solids can dissolve into water as ions from a pile of powder on the bottom or precipitate out of water into a pile on the bottom. • The pile is usually a bunch of microcrystals. • If we have big chunks we will grind them into a fine powder before putting them into the water. This helps them dissolve faster, because there is more surface area. Ions dissolve by leaving the surface. Duh! • We might grow a big crystal on the bottom. You may have done that as a child. That is important in chemistry, but takes special circumstances, so that usually you get powder.
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6 Copyright: 2010 Prof. Magde Chapter 4: Reactions in aqueous solution • Classification of Ionic Reactions in Water 1. Double replacement (always in water) 2. Single replacement (always in water) Double replacement switches ionic partners. AB + CD AD + CB It has to be A with D and C with B, because A and C are the cations. They come first in names. • BE CAREFUL!! You only have a reaction if you have a reaction! Duh! NaCl (aq) + KNO 3 (aq) No Reaction The four ions float around in water. They are all soluble. So it looks like we better memorize solubility rules! Here is a real double replacement NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO 3 (aq) So there needs to be a real product. It can be a solid, or a gas (often a secondary reaction), or a liquid (specifically water, for us), or a weak acid that is soluble but does not dissociate.
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6 Copyright: 2010 Prof. Magde Chapter 4: Solubility Rules • Salts of the alkali metal ions and ammonium ion are soluble cations for all anions. Li + , Na + , K + , Rb + , Cs + , NH 4 + • Salts of the nitrate, acetate, chlorate, and perchlorate are soluble anions for all cations. NO
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2011 for the course CHEM 6A taught by Professor Pomeroy during the Fall '08 term at UCSD.

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Chapter4Lecture - Chapter 4: Reactions in aqueous solution...

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