exam 2 study guide

exam 2 study guide - Perception ch 4 top-down processing: a...

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Perception ch 4 top-down processing: a progression from the whole to the elements ex: we first recognize words not individual letters bottom-up processing : a progression from elements to the whole NOT COMMON AT ALL in form perception Gestalt principles of form perception: the whole can be greater than the sum of its parts, - phi phenomenon : illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession. Ex: movie figure & ground : figure the thing being looked at, ground is the background against which is stands= can see two different images closure – grouping elements into order to create closure or completeness, person themselves in their minds supply the missing elements in a picture proximity – things that are near each other seem to belong together / tend to be grouped together similarity – grouping of stimuli that are similar ex: circle shapes- some are darker and spell out 2 simplicity – law of Pragnanz, “good form” ppl group elements that combine to form a good figure= ppl organize forms into simplest way possible continuity – ppl tendency to follow in w/e direction they’ve been led, ppl will connect points that result in straight, smooth curved lines perceptual hypotheses- is an inference about which distal stimuli could be responsible for the proximal stimuli sensed ex: reversible figures, old woman/ young woman. Learning ch 6 psych 1 exam 2 book notes/ vocab chapter 6 -learning: any change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience -neutral stimulus: ex=tone unconditioned response- salivating -unconditioned stimulus: stimulus which causes an unconditioned response w/o previous conditioning - unconditioned response is an unlearned reaction -conditioned stimulus -Acquisition: the initial stage of learning -extinction : gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency -spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of an extinguishable response after a period of no exposure to the conditioned stimulus - rejuvenated response is weak -renewal effect: if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place.
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-stimulus generalization: when an organism has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus -stimulus discrimination: when an organism has learned a response to a specific stimulus does NOT respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus ex: dog only gets excited when it hears your car- not just any car -higher order conditioning: conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus - this means that there doesnt have to be a genuine US ex: seeing a cop car and getting anxiety even though u r under speed limit - associate cop car with car ticket *OPERANT CONDITOINING= skinner we can shape ppl with consequences -a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2011 for the course PSYCH 1 taught by Professor Post during the Fall '10 term at UC Davis.

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exam 2 study guide - Perception ch 4 top-down processing: a...

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