02 approaches to psychology (1)

02 approaches to psychology (1) - APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY...

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APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY
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Issues to Consider A brief history of psychology before psychology the emergence of psychology early schools of psychology Theoretical approaches Behaviourist Psychodynamic Humanistic Cognitive Physiological Social Constructionist
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A Brief History of Psychology ‘Psychology has a long past, but its real history is short.’ Ebbinghaus (1908)
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Before Psychology Does psychology go back to the Ancient Greeks? Certainly it was shaped by Enlightenment philosophy (e.g. Descartes, Locke, Hobbes) However, others also asked about human nature, for example theologians and educators These questions were all forms of reflexive discourse Psychology emerged as a new kind of reflexive discourse, using science to find answers
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The Emergence of Psychology (1) Psychology is usually described as beginning with the opening of an experimental lab by Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig in 1879 However, it’s more realistic to see psychology as emerging gradually over the course of the 19 th century Psychology emerged as a logical progression from attempts to use science to answer questions about human nature
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The Emergence of Psychology (2) Psychology had a number of forerunners These included advances in understanding the brain and in experimental physiology Other forerunners included faculty psychology and phrenology
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The Emergence of Psychology (3) Scientific psychology became possible with the acceptance of evolutionary thought, particularly Darwin’s The Origin of Species This located humanity within the animal kingdom, and hence in the realm of natural science Evolutionary thought led particularly to forms of adaptational psychology, individual difference psychology, and comparative psychology
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The Early Schools of Psychology Psychology quickly diversified from the late 19th century, leading to a number of distinct schools: Structuralism , which investigated the structure of the mind Functionalism , which investigated the adaptive functions of the mind Behaviourism , which emphasised the role of the environment in guiding behaviour Gestalt , which emphasised holistic aspects of mental processing Psychoanalysis , which emphasised the role of unconscious forces in shaping behaviour
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Theoretical Approaches Since the 1950s, psychologists have adopted a number of diverse approaches to understanding
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02 approaches to psychology (1) - APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY...

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