chapter03 - Chapter 3 Biological Psychology Biological...

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Chapter 3 Biological Psychology
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Biological Psychology In this chapter we will examine: What are the components of the nervous system? How does the brain create mental processes and behavior? “What we understand least is why brain activity produces experience at all.” -- James W. Kalat
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Module 3.1 Genes and Behavior
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Genes and Behavior From research we know that genetic factors have a substantial influence on many aspects of psychology. But we still don’t know: How genes shape mental processes and behavior How much influence genes actually have Which aspects of the environment are most important in influencing psychological processes How do genes and environment work together to shape mental processes and behavior?
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Figure 3.2 Genes are sections of chromosomes in the nuclei of cells. (Scale is exaggerated for illustration purposes.)
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Chromosomes Most animal and plant cells contain a nucleus with hereditary material – instructions in the form of strands called chromosomes. Humans have 46 chromosomes – 23 pairs – in every body cell except for the sex cells. Sperm and ova each contain 23 unpaired chromosomes that unite at conception. Genetic Principles
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Genetic Principles Genes The genes that form the sections of the chromosomes control the chemical reactions that direct an individual organism’s development. Genes control protein production in order to produce specific characteristics – a specific group of genes will exert a large influence over height, weight, or eye color.
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Genetic Principles Genes Genes are composed of DNA, special chemicals that control the production of RNA. RNA in turn controls the production of proteins. The proteins either become part of the individual’s body, or control the rate of chemical reactions in the body.
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Figure 3.4 The genes, composed of DNA, control the production of RNA, which in turn controls the production of proteins. Proteins form many structures of the body (e.g., muscles); they also control the rate of many chemical reactions (e.g., digestion).
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Genetic Principles Genes Cells that contained paired chromosomes also contain paired genes. If both genes of a pair are identical, the individual has received a homozygous pair . If the genes are different, the individual is heterozygous for that trait.
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Figure 3.5 In a pair of homozygous chromosomes, the gene for a given trait is identical on both chromosomes. In a heterozygous pair, the chromosomes contain different genes for a trait.
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Genetic Principles Genes If an individual receives one gene for wavy hair and another for straight hair, that individual’s hair will be straight. The gene for wavy hair is a dominant
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2011 for the course PSY 210 taught by Professor Williams during the Spring '10 term at University of Phoenix.

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chapter03 - Chapter 3 Biological Psychology Biological...

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