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Unformatted text preview: Peace Psychology 2009 Division 48 Presidential Address American Psychological Association Annual Convention Metro Toronto Convention Center August 8, 2009 Eduardo I. Diaz, Ph.D President Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict and Violence: Peace Psychology Society Division 48 of the American Psychological Association (APA) www.peacepsych.org www.peacepsych.org Executive Director Miami-Dade County Independent Review Panel (IRP) www.miamidade.gov/irp www.miamidade.gov/irp [email protected] Introduction Presenter is currently President of the Society for the Study of Presenter Peace, Conflict and Violence: the Peace Psychology Division of the American Psychological Association (APA). He is also immediate Past President of the National Association for Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement (NACOLE). Law Presenter has 27 years of experience as a Psychologist working in Presenter Criminal Justice related public service, with 13 of those years at Miami-Dade County’s Independent Review Panel (IRP). Miami-Dade Presenter will provide an update on the status of Peace Psychology Presenter research and practice locally, nationally and internationally. research 2 Learning Objectives Articulation of basic Peace Psychology Articulation principles Enhanced awareness of APA Peace Psychology Division structure and activities Skill development useful in violence reduction, community building and dispute resolution resolution Links to Peace Psychology resources 3 Dedication This presentation is dedicated to all of the This Peace Psychology pioneers who laid the foundation for the Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict and Violence: Peace Psychology Division (48) of the American Psychological Association Psychological 4 Peace Psychologists Engage In: Scholarship – – – Academics Education Education Research Practice – Independent Practice – Government Government – Foundations Activism – Corporate – Individual – Psychologists for Social Responsibility (PsySR) Psychologists 5 Scholarship 6 Scholarship The following compilation of Peace Psychology course The descriptions, topics and references to the literature was provided by Society Past President: Daniel J. Christie Daniel Professor Emeritus of Psychology Ohio State University, USA Ohio [email protected] [email protected] Thank you! Thank 7 Peace Psychology I Negative Peace: Conflict and the Prevention of Violence The course explores negative peace, which refers to conditions that The foster the absence of violence. A key distinction is the perception of incompatible goals (conflict) by individuals or groups versus coercive actions (violence) in pursuit of those goals. The sources and consequences of conflict and violence are explored. Then three points of intervention are examined: during the (1) conflict, (2) violence, or (3) post-violence phase. Emphasis is placed on thoughts, feelings, and actions that can prevent violence, deescalate violent episodes, and reconcile relationships in the aftermath of violence. 8 Peace Psychology II Positive Peace: Promoting Structural and Cultural Peace Comprehensive peace means not only the prevention of violent Comprehensive episodes (Peace Psychology I) but also the creation of a more equitable social order that meets the basic needs and rights of all people (Peace Psychology II). This course explores positive peace, which refers to social and cultural transformations that reduce structural violence, an insidious form of violence that kills people slowly through the deprivation of human need satisfaction. Emphasis is placed on concepts and psychological processes that are sources of structural and cultural violence. In addition, the course examines ways of reducing social, racial, gender, economic, and ecological injustices as well as the kinds of thoughts, feelings, and actions of individuals and groups that promote socially just arrangements. Methods of building and sustaining peaceful relationships are also explored. 9 Peace Psychology I Course Outline I. Introduction to Peace Psychology II. Conflict and Violence A. Conflict: Sources and Consequences B. Violence: Sources and Consequences B. III. Points of Intervention: During Conflict, Violence, or Post-Violence or A. Intervening During Conflict B. Intervening During Episodes and Cycles B. of Violence C. Post-Violence Peacebuilding C. 10 10 Peace Psychology II Course Peace Outline Outline I. Sources of Structural and Cultural Violence II. Decreasing Structural and Cultural Violence II. III. Systems Analysis and Intervention: Treating the Whole System Whole IV. Sustaining and Building on Peaceful Relations 11 11 Introduction to Peace Psychology Comparing Peace Studies and Peace Education Harris, I. (2002). Conceptual underpinnings of peace education. In G. Salomon Harris, & B. Nevo (Eds.), Peace education: The concept, principles, and practices around the world (pp. B. 15-26), Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates 15-26), What is Peace Psychology the Psychology of? Christie, (2006) What is peace psychology the psychology of? Journal of Social Issues, 62, 1-17. Christie, Journal 62 Peace Psychology Concepts: Obstacles to and Catalysts for Peace Cohrs, J. C., & Boehnke, K. (2008). Social psychology and peace. Social Psychology, 39, 4-11. Cohrs, Social Overlap of Social and Peace Psychology Vollhardt, J. K., & Bilali, R. (2008). Social psychology’s contributions to the psychological study of Vollhardt, peace: A review. Social Psychology, 39, 12-25. Social 12-25. A Model of Peace Psychology: Overview of Course Model Christie, D. J., Tint, B., Wagner, R. V., & Winter, D. D. (2008). Peace psychology for a peaceful Christie, world. American Psychologist, 63, 540-552. 540-552. 12 12 Conflict: Sources and Consequences Intergroup Bias: Measurement, Theories, and Moderators Hewstone, M., Rubin, M. & Willis, H. (2002). Intergroup bias. Annual review of Psychology, 53, Hewstone, review 575-604. 575-604. Patriotism versus Nationalism: On Love and Hate! Kosterman, R., & Feshbach, S. (1989). Toward a measure of patriotic and nationalistic attitudes. Kosterman, Political Psychology, 10, 257-274. Political Infrahumanization: “We’re humans; they’re animals!” Leyens, J. P., Cortez, B., Demoulin, S. Divido, J. F., Fiske, S. T., Gaunt, R., Paladino, M. P., Leyens, Rodriguez-Perez, A., Rodriguez-Torrez, R., & Vaez, J. (2003). Emotional prejudice, essentialism, and nationalism. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 703-717. European Stereotypes and Dehumanization Harris, L. T., & Fiske, S. T. (2006). Dehumanizing the lowest of the low: Neuroimaging Harris, responses to extreme out-groups. Psychological Science, 17, 847-853. Psychological Images of the Other: Enemy, Barbarian, Ally, Imperialist, or Dependent? Alexander, M. G., Levin., & Henry, P. J. (2005). Image Theory, Social Identity, and Social Alexander, Dominance: Structural Characteristics and Individual Motives. Political Psychology, 26, 27-45 Political Intergroup Threats and Conflict Riek, B. M., Mania, E. W., & Gaertner, S. L. (2006). Intergroup threat and outgroup attitudes: A Riek, meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 336-353. 336-353. Conflict as a Result of Diminishing Environmental Resources 13 Winter, D. D., & Cava, M. M. (2006). The psycho-ecology of armed-conflict. Journal of Social 13 Winter, Violence: Sources and Consequences The Power of the Situation: When Good People do Evil Things! Zimbardo, P. G. (2004). A situationist perspective on the psychology of evil: Understanding how Zimbardo, good people are transformed into perpetrators. In A. Miller (Ed.), The social psychology of good and evil: Understanding our capacity for kindness and cruelty (pp. 21-50). New York: Guilford. and Yale Alumni Magazine. (2007). When good people do evil. Available online at Yale http://www.yalealumnimagazine.com/issues/2007_01/milgram.html http://www.yalealumnimagazine.com/issues/2007_01/milgram.html Conflict Escalation: When Bias Leads to Violence Fiske, S. T. (2002). What we know now about bias and intergroup conflict: The problem of the Fiske, century. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 123-128. Current Prejudice and Discrimination: From Thought to Feelings to Actions Smith, E. R. (2008). Rediscovering the emotional aspect of prejudice and intergroup behavior. In Smith, U. Wagner, L. R. Tropp, G. Finchilescu, and C. Tredoux (Eds.), Improving intergroup relations: Building on the legacy of Thomas F. Pettigrew (pp. 42-54). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Building Continuum of Destruction: From Insults to Genocide Staub, E. (2001). Individual and group identities in genocide and mass killing. In R. D. Ashmore, Staub, L. Jussim, & D. Wilder (Eds.), Social identity, intergroup conflict, and conflict reduction (pp. 159Social 184). Oxford, Oxford University Press. Dangerous Ideologies that Set the Stage for Violence Eidelson, R. J. & Eidelson, J. I. (2003). Dangerous ideas: Five ideas that propel groups Eidelson, toward conflict. American Psychologist, 58, 182-192. American 14 14 Violence: Sources and Consequences Intractable Conflicts and Cycles of Violence Bar-Tal, D. (2007). Sociopsychological foundations of intractable conflict. American Behavioral Bar-Tal, Scientist, 50,1430-1453. 50,1430-1453. Terrorism: Some Psychological and Cultural Roots Moghaddam, F. M. (2003). Cultural preconditions for potential terrorist groups: Terrorism and Moghaddam, societal change. In F. M. Moghaddam & A. J. Marsella (Eds.), Understanding terrorism: Psychosocial roots, consequences, and interventions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Psychosocial Washington, Association. Association. A Consequence of Terrorism: Cycles of Violence Pyszczynski, T., Rothschild, Z., Abdollahi, A. (2009). Terrorism, violence, and hope for peace. Pyszczynski, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 318-322. Current Psychology of Militarism Winter, D. D., Pilisuk, M. Houck, S., & Lee, M. (2001). Understanding militarism: Money, Winter, masculinity, and the search for the mystical. In D. J. Christie, R. V. Wagner, & D. D. Winter (Eds.), Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century. Available at http://academic.marion.ohio-state.edu/dchristie/Peace%20Psychology%20Book.html http://academic.marion.ohio-state.edu/dchristie/Peace%20Psychology%20Book.html 15 15 Intervening During Conflict During Enthnocultural Empathy Wang, Y-W., Davidson, M. M., Yakushko, O. F., Savoy, J. B., Tan, J. A., & Bleier, J. K. (2003). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 221-234. Anti-bias Interventions Anti-bias Paluck, E. L., & Green, D. P. (2009). Prejudice reduction: What works? A review and assessment Paluck, of research and practice. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 339-367. Annual Conflict Resolution Sanson, A., & Bretherton, D. (2001). Conflict resolution: theoretical and practical issues. In D. J. Sanson, Christie, R. V. Wagner, & D. D. Winter (Eds.), Peace, Conflict, and Violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century. Available at for Available http://academic.marion.ohio-state.edu/dchristie/Peace%20Psychology%20Book.html http://academic.marion.ohio-state.edu/dchristie/Peace%20Psychology%20Book.html Intergroup Contact Theory Tausch, N., Kenworthy, J., Hewstone, M. (2006). Intergroup contact and the improvement of Tausch, intergroup relations. In M. Fitzduff and C. Stout (Eds.), The psychology of resolving global conflicts: From war to peace, Vol. 2 (pp. 67-107), Westport, CT: Praeger Security International. conflicts: Why Intergroup Contact Works! Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., Saguy, T., & Halabi, S. (2008). From when to why: Understanding Dovidio, how contact reduces bias. In U. Wagner, L. R. Tropp, G. Finchilescu, & C. Tredoux (Eds.), Improving intergroup relations: Building on the legacy of Thomas F. Pettigrew (pp. 75-90). Improving Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Oxford: 16 16 Intervening During Conflict Applying Intergroup Contact Theory in Malaysia Noor, N. M., (in press). The future of Malay-Chinese relations in Malaysia. In C. J. Montiel & N. Noor, M. Noor (Eds.), Peace psychology in Asia. New York: Springer. Peace No Intergroup Peace without Intragroup Peace: Reconciling Differences within Groups Khisbiyah, Y. (in press). Contested discourses on violence, social justice and peacebuilding Khisbiyah, among Indonesian Muslims. In C. J. Montiel & N. M. Noor (Eds.), Peace psychology in Asia. Peace New York: Springer. Building Intergroup Trust Building Tropp, L. R. (2008). The role of trust in intergroup contact: Its significance and implications for Tropp, improving relations between groups. In U. Wagner, L. R. Tropp, G. Finchilescu, and C. Tredoux (Eds.), Improving intergroup relations: Building on the legacy of Thomas F. Pettigrew, (pp. 91Improving 106). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. The Role of Cognitive Complexity in Intergroup Relations Brewer, M. B. (2008). Deprovincialization: Social identity complexity and outgroup acceptance. Brewer, In U. Wagner, L. R. Tropp, G. Finchilescu, and C. Tredoux (Eds.), Improving intergroup relations: Building on the legacy of Thomas F. Pettigrew (pp. 42-54). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Building Soft Power Nye, J. (2008). Public diplomacy and soft power. Annals of the American Academy, 616, 94-105. Nye, Annals 94-105. 17 17 Intervening During Episodes and Cycles Intervening of Violence of Peacekeeping Operations and the Issue of Morale Maguen, S., & Litz, B. T. (2006). Predictors of Morale in U.S. Peacekeepers. Journal of Applied Maguen, Predictors Social Psychology, 36, 820-836. Social Co-existing in Times of Violence Abu-Nimer, M. (2004). Education for coexistence and Arab-Jewish encounters in Israel: Potential Abu-Nimer, and challenges. Journal of Social Issues, 60, 405-442. Journal Third Party Interventions Kelman, H. C. Interactive problem solving in the Israeli-Palestinian case: Past contributions and Kelman, present challenges. In R. J. Fisher (Ed.), Paving the way: Contributions of interactive conflict resolution to peacemaking (pp. 41-64). New York: Lexington Books. resolution Deescalating Conflict and Violence Bar-Tal, D. (2000). Bar-Tal, From intractable conflict through conflict resolution to reconciliation: Psychological analysis. From Political Psychology, 21, 351-365. Breaking Cycles of Violence Breaking Wessells, M. (2006). Child Soldiering: Entry, Reintegration, and Breaking Cycles of Violence. In Wessells, Child M. Fitzduff & C. E. Stout (Eds.), The psychology of resolving global conflicts: From war to peace (Vol. 3, pp. 243-266). Westport, CT: Praeger Security International. (Vol. 18 18 Post-Violence Peacebuilding Reintegrating Soldiers into Society Williamson, J (2006). The disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of child soldiers: Social Williamson, and psychological transformation in Sierra Leone. Intervention: International Journal of Mental Health, Psychosocial Work & Counselling in Areas of Armed Conflict, 4, 185-205. 185-205. As Quarreling Children Would Say: “Let Us Baku Bae” (Resume our Friendship) As Muluk, H. & Malik, I. (in press). Peace psychology of grassroots reconciliation: Lessons learned from the “Baku Bae” peace movement. In C. J. Montiel & N. M. Noor (Eds.), Peace Psychology in Asia. New York: Springer. in New Collective Memory and Reconciliation Collective Muluk, H. (in press). Memory for sale: How groups “distort” their collective memory for Muluk, reconciliation purposes and building peace. In C. J. Montiel & N. M. Noor (Eds.), Peace Psychology in Asia. New York: Springer. Psychology Intergroup Contact and Reconciliation Hewstone, M., Kenworthy, J. B., Cairns, E., Tausch, N., Hughes, J., Tam, T., Voci, A., von Hewstone, Hecker, U., & Pinder, C. Stepping stones to reconciliation in Northern Ireland: Intergroup contact, forgiveness, and trust. In A. Nadler, T. E. Malloy, & J. D. Fisher (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Reconciliation (pp. 199-226). Oxford, Oxford University Press. 19 19 Post-Violence Peacebuilding Dialogue, Forgiveness, and Reconciliation Tint, B. (in press). Dialogue, forgiveness, and reconciliation. In A. Kalayjian & R. Paloutzian Tint, (Eds.), Psychological Pathways to Conflict Transformation and Peace Building. New York: Psychological New Springer. Springer. Cultural Sensitivity and Reconciliation Wessells, M. (2009). Community reconciliation and post-conflict reconstruction for peace. In J. de Wessells, Rivera (Ed.), Handbook on building cultures of peace (pp. 349-362). New York: Springer. Handbook Some Principles of Reconciliation Deutsch, M. (2008). Reconciliation after destructive intergroup conflict (pp. 471-485). In A. Deutsch, Nadler, T. E. Malloy, & J. D. Fisher (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Reconciliation. Oxford, The Oxford, Oxford University Press. 20 20 Sources of Structural and Cultural Violence Social Dominance Orientation Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. (1999). Social dominance theory: A new synthesis. In J. Sidanius & F. Sidanius, Pratto, Social dominance: An intergroup theory of hierarchy and oppression (pp. 31-58). Oxford: Social Oxford University Press. Psychological Roots of Social Injustice Psychological Opotow, S. (2001). Social Injustice. In D. J. Christie, R. V. Wagner, D. D. Winter (Eds.), Peace, Opotow, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century. Available at conflict, Available http://academic.marion.ohio-state.edu/dchristie/Peace%20Psychology%20Book.html http://academic.marion.ohio-state.edu/dchristie/Peace%20Psychology%20Book.html The Tension between Colonization and Democratization: Peace Psychology in Asia Montiel, C. J. (in press). Overview of peace psychology in Asia: Research, practice, and Montiel, teaching. In C. J. Montiel & N. M. Noor (Eds.), Peace Psychology in Asia. New York: Springer. Psychology Social Representations and the Legacy of Inequality Liu, J. H. (in press). Culture, social representation, and peacemaking: A symbolic theory of Liu, history and identity. In C. J. Montiel & N. M. Noor (Eds.), Peace psychology in Asia. New York: Peace New Springer. Springer. System-Justifying Ideologies Jost, J. T. & Hunyady, O. (2005). Antecedents and consequences of system-justifying ideologies. Jost, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 260-265. Current Strengthening System Justification: The Threat of Terrorism Ullrich, J. & Cohrs, J. C. (2007). Terrorism salience increases system justification: Experimental21 Ullrich, 21 evidence. Social Justice Research, 20, 117-139. evidence. Decreasing Structural and Cultural Decreasing Violence Violence Psychology of Collective Action van Zomeren, M., Postmes, T., & Spears, R. (2008). Toward an Integrative Social Identity Model van of Collective Action: A Quantitative Research Synthesis of Three Socio-Psychological Perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 504–535. Psychological Liberation Psychology: Empowering the Oppressed Burton, M. & Kagan, C. (2005). Liberation social psychology: Learning from Latin America. Burton, Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 15, 63-67. Journal Methods of Liberation Psychology Montero, M. (in press). Methods for liberation: Critical consciousness in action. In M. Montero & Montero, C. Sonn (Eds.), The psychology of liberation: Theory and Applications. New York, Springer. The Liberating the Hijab! Noor, N. M. (in press). Liberating the Hijab. In C. J. Montiel & N. M. Noor (Eds.), Peace Noor, psychology in Asia. New York: Springer. psychology Collective Action and Structural Peacebuilding Montiel, C. J. (2001). Toward a psychology of structural peacebuilding. In D. J. Christie, R. V. Montiel, Wagner, & D. D. Winter (Eds.), Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century. Available at century. http://academic.marion.ohio-state.edu/dchristie/Peace%20Psychology%20Book.html http://academic.marion.ohio-state.edu/dchristie/Peace%20Psychology%20Book.html Islamic Education and Social Justice Pohl, F. (in press). Interreligious harmony and peacebuilding in Indonesian Islamic education. In Pohl, C. J. Montiel & N. M. Noor (Eds.), Peace psychology in Asia. New York: Springer. Peace 22 22 Systems Analysis and Intervention: Systems Treating the Whole System Treating A Systems Perspective on Violence and Peace Christie, D., & Wessells, M. Social Psychology of Violence. In L. Kurtz (Ed.), Encyclopedia of violence, peace, & conflict (pp. 1955-1963). Oxford: Elsevier. (Ed.), Encyclopedia A Systems Analysis of Terrorism Wagner, R. V. (2006). Terrorism: A peace psychological analysis. Journal of Social Issues, 62, Wagner, Journal 155-171. 155-171. Psychology of Martyrdom: A Systems View Moghaddam, F. (2005). The staircase to terrorism: A psychological exploration. American Moghaddam, Psychologist, 60, 161-169. Psychologist, Changing Social Policies Wessells, M., & Dawes, A. (2007). Macro-level interventions: Psychology, social policy, and Wessells, societal influence processes. In M. J. Stevens & U. P. Gielen (Eds.), Toward a global psychology: Theory, research, intervention, and pedagogy (pp.267-298). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence (pp.267-298) Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Erlbaum 23 23 Sustaining and Building on Peaceful Sustaining Relations Relations How Will We Know We are Building Peaceful Relations? Measuring Cultures of Peace De Rivera, J. (2004). A template for assessing cultures of peace. Peace and Conflict: Journal of De template Peace Psychology, 10, 125-146. 125-146. Psychologically-informed Policies that Build Cultures of Peace Anderson, A., & Christie, D. J. (2001). Some contributions of psychology to policies promoting Anderson, cultures of peace. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 7, 173-185. cultures 173-185. Strengthening Relations through Humanitarian Assistance Gerard, J. A. (2007). The development and maturation of humanitarian psychology. American Gerard, Psychologist, 62, 932-941. Psychologist, 62 932-941. Building Peaceful Relations in Asia Building Noor, N. M. (in press). The future of peace psychology in Asia. In C. J. Montiel & N. M. Noor Noor, (Eds.), Peace psychology in Asia. New York: Springer. Peace Personal Transformation: The Nonviolent Person Mayton, D. M. (in press). Intrapersonal perspectives on peace. In D. M. Mayton, Nonviolence Mayton, and peace psychology: Intrapersonal, interpersonal, societal, and world peace. New York: and New Springer. Springer. 24 24 25 25 Download 2001 Christie, Wagner & Winter Download Peace Psychology Book At: Peace http://academic.marion.ohio-state.edu/dchristie/Peace%20Psychology%20Book.html http://academic.marion.ohio-state.edu/dchristie/Peace%20Psychology%20Book.html Table of Contents.pdf Contents.pdf Foreword (M. Brewster Smith).pdf Smith).pdf Preface (Christie, Wagner, & Winter).pdf Winter).pdf Introduction to Peace Psychology (Christie, Wagner, & Winter).pdf Winter).pdf Section I - Direct Violence (Wagner).pdf Section Chapter 1 - Intimate Violence (Abrahams).pdf Chapter Chapter 2 - Anti Gay & Lesbian Violence (Cody Murphy).pdf Murphy).pdf Chapter 3 - Intrastate Violence (Niens & Cairns).pdf Chapter Cairns).pdf Chapter 4 - Nationalism & War (Druckman).pdf Chapter Chapter 5 - Integrative Complexity & War & Peace (Conway, Suedfeld, & Tetlock).pdf Suedfeld Tetlock).pdf Chapter 6 - Genocide and Mass Killing (Staub).pdf Chapter Chapter 7 - Weapons of Mass Destruction (Britton).pdf Chapter Chapter 8 - Social Injustice (Opotow).pdf Chapter 26 26 Download 2001 Christie, Wagner & Winter Download Peace Psychology Book At: Peace Section II - Structural Violence (Winter & Leighton).pdf Section Leighton).pdf Chapter 9 - Children & Violence in the US (Kostelny & Garbarino).pdf Chapter Garbarino).pdf Chapter 10 - Children & Structural Violence (Schwebel & Christie).pdf Christie).pdf Chapter 11 - Women, Girls, & Structural Violence (Mazurana & McKay).pdf Chapter McKay).pdf Chapter 12 - Understanding Militarism (Winter, Pilisuk, Houck, & Lee).pdf Lee).pdf Chapter 13 - Globalism & Structural Violence (Pilisuk).pdf Chapter Chapter 14 - Human Rights (Lykes).pdf Chapter Section III - Peacemaking (Wagner).pdf Section http://academic.marion.ohio-state.edu/dchristie/Peace%20Psychology%20Book.html http://academic.marion.ohio-state.edu/dchristie/Peace%20Psychology%20Book.html Chapter 15 - Peacekeeping (Langholtz & Leentjes).pdf Chapter Leentjes).pdf Chapter 16 - The Cultural Context of Peacemaking (Pedersen).pdf Chapter Chapter 17 - Confict Resolution (Sanson & Bretherton).pdf Confict Bretherton).pdf Chapter 18 - Psychology & the TRANSCEND Approach (Galtung & Tschudi).pdf Chapter Tschudi).pdf Chapter 19 Cooperation & Conflict Resolution in Schools (Coleman & Deutsch).pdf Deutsch).pdf Chapter 20 - Reducing Trauma during Ethnopolitical Conflict (Agger).pdf Ethnopolitical Chapter 21 - Reconciliation in Divided Societies (de la Rey).pdf Rey).pdf Chapter 22 - Psychosocial Intervention & Post War Reconstruction (Wessells & Monteiro).pdf Chapter Monteiro).pdf 27 27 Download 2001 Christie, Wagner & Winter Download Peace Psychology Book At: Peace Section IV - Peacebuilding (Christie).pdf Section Peacebuilding http://academic.marion.ohio-state.edu/dchristie/Peace%20Psychology%20Book.html http://academic.marion.ohio-state.edu/dchristie/Peace%20Psychology%20Book.html Chapter 23 - Structural Peacebuilding (Montiel).pdf Peacebuilding Chapter 24 - Psychologies for Liberation (Dawes).pdf Chapter Chapter 25 - Gandhi as Peacebuilder (Mayton).pdf Peacebuilder Chapter 26 - Peacebuilding & Nonviolence (Steger).pdf Peacebuilding Chapter 27 - Children's Perspectives on Peace (Hakvoort & Hagglund).pdf Chapter Hagglund).pdf Chapter 28 - Empowerment Based Interventions (Webster & Perkins).pdf Perkins).pdf Chapter 29 - Gendering Peacebuilding (McKay & Mazurana).pdf Peacebuilding Mazurana).pdf Chapter 30 - Psychologists Building Cultures of Peace (Wessells, Schwebel, & Anderson).pdf Chapter Schwebel, Anderson).pdf Conclusion (Winter, Christie, Wagner, & Boston).pdf Boston).pdf Acknowledgments.pdf Acknowledgments.pdf Index.pdf Index.pdf References.pdf References.pdf 28 28 Practice 29 29 Samples of Peace Psychology Samples Practice Practice Independent – Private Practice Government – Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement Foundations – Consultation 30 30 SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF PEACE, CONFLICT, AND VIOLENCE: PEACE PSYCHOLOGY DIVISION OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION DIVISION 48 The Division of Peace Psychology, established The within the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1990, is a growing organization consisting of psychologists, students, and professional affiliates from diverse disciplines. professional www.peacepsych.org www.peacepsych.org 31 31 Society 2009 Executive Committee President, Eduardo I. Diaz, Miami-Dade County Independent Review Panel, FL President, Eduardo President-elect, Joseph H. de Rivera, Clark University, Worcester, MA President-elect, Past President, Deborah Fish Ragin, Montclair State University, NJ Secretary, Kathleen H. Dockett, U. of the District of Columbia, Washington, DC Kathleen Treasurer, John Gruszkos, Independent Practice, Ashland, VA Treasurer, John Program Chair, Julie M. Levitt, Independent Practice, Bala Cynwyd, PA Program Independent Membership Chair, Rachel M. MacNair, Inst. for Integrated Social Analysis, Kansas Membership City, MO City, Member-at-Large, Peter T. Coleman, Teachers College, Columbia U., New York Member-at-Large, Member-at-Large, Judy Kuriansky, Teachers College, Columbia U., New York Member-at-Large, Julie M. Levitt, Independent Practice, Bala Cynwyd, PA Member-at-Large, Representative to APA Council, Albert Valencia, California State University, Representative Fresno, CA Representative to APA Council, Judith L. Van Hoorn, University of the Pacific Representative Judith Stockton, CA Stockton, Journal Editor, Richard V. Wagner, Bates College, Lewiston, ME Journal Richard Newsletter Editor, Michael R. Hulsizer, Webster University, St. Louis, MO Newsletter Michael Internet Editor, Linda Woolf, Webster University, St. Louis, MO Internet Linda Student and Early Career Working Group Chair, Silvia Susnjic, Institute for Conflict Student Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University, Arlington, VA Analysis 32 32 Vision Statement As peace psychologists, our vision is the As development of sustainable societies through the prevention of destructive conflict and violence, the amelioration of its consequences, the empowerment of individuals, and the building of cultures of peace and global community. 33 33 Purpose The purpose of the division is to increase The and apply psychological knowledge in the pursuit of peace. Peace here is defined broadly to include both the absence of war and the creation of positive social conditions which minimize destructive conflicts and promote human well-being. 34 34 The specific goals of the Peace Division are: 1) to encourage psychological research, education, and 1) training on issues concerning peace, nonviolent conflict resolution, reconciliation, and the causes, consequences and prevention of war and other forms of destructive conflict; 2) to provide an organization that fosters communication among researchers, teachers, and practitioners who are working on peace issues; and 3) to apply the knowledge and the methods of psychology in the advancement of peace, non-violent conflict resolution, reconciliation, and the prevention of war and other forms of destructive conflict. war 35 35 Membership Information The Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict, and The Violence: Peace Psychology functions as Division 48 of the American Psychological Association (APA). It is not American It not necessary to belong to the APA in order to be a member of the Society. of We welcome all new members who share an interest in We peace! Membership benefits include a subscription to our journal Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, our Peace our newsletter Peace Psychology, and participation on our Peace and listservs to meet and network with other peace psychology advocates. 36 36 Journal Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Peace Psychology Psychology ISSN: 1532-7949 (electronic) 1078-1919 (paper) ISSN: Publication Frequency: 4 issues per year Publication Publisher: Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group Publisher: 37 37 Aims & Scope “This unique journal is guided by the vision of a world in This which peaceful means of resolving conflict prevail over violent ones and in which equity and social justice are hallmarks of all relations--family, community, national, and international. Its scholarly articles cover a wide array of topics, including the diverse causes and consequences of war and other forms of destructive conflict, as well as peace-making and reconciliation, prevention, and sustainable development. Issues about children and family, ethnicity, and feminism have been prominent in articles about both direct and structural violence. The journal publishes a mixture of empirical, theoretical, clinical, and historical work, as well as policy analyses, book reviews, and bibliographic essays. It seeks to be truly international and welcomes authors from all parts of the world.” 38 38 39 39 Activism 40 40 Actvism Psychologists for Social Responsibility Psychologists (PsySR) (PsySR) http://www.psysr.org/ “Building Cultures of Peace with Social Building Justice” Justice” 41 41 Restorative Justice Contrasts with Retributive Justice. Contrasts Strives to restore relationships to nonStrives offending status. Involves engagement of: – Offender – Victim – Government – Community 42 42 Aggression and Violence Dr. Susan Opotow John Jay College of Criminal Justice John City University of New York City [email protected] Research Focus Research – Conflict and injustice – Psychosocial conditions permitting harm – Scope of Justice 43 43 Nature of Violence Nature Violence – The exertion of physical (or Violence or psychological) force that harms. psychological Direct Violence – That committed by identifiable Direct people on particular victims. people Structural Violence – Harm that comes from Structural subtle, gradual, systematized, normally accepted actions of particular social institutions where responsibility is blurred. (Determines who gets heard, who gets devalued and who gets resources.) resources.) Direct and Structural Violence manifest Direct differently but are interdependent differently 44 44 Examples of Direct Violence Hate crimes Ethnic cleansing Rape Murder War Police brutality 45 45 Examples of Structural Violence Poverty Unemployment Discrimination (Racism, sexism, etc.) Poor health care, schools or housing Racial profiling Corrupt political system Poor accountability for misuse of power Poor 46 46 Basis of Social Injustice Distorted Perceptions Distorted Thoughts Distorted Moral Decisions In-group Rationalizations Self-serving Justifications Social, Psychological, Economic, and Social, Political Conditions That Privilege Some But Exclude Others But 47 47 Moral Exclusion Morals- Norms, rights, entitlements, obligations, Moralsresponsibilities and duties that shape our sense of justice and guide our behavior with others. of Moral Community- Those we value inside our Moral “scope of justice”, family, friends, compatriots and coreligionists. “US” and Morally Excludable- Strangers outside our scope Morally of justice and enemies. “THEM” of 48 48 Psychological Bases for Moral Psychological Exclusion Exclusion Tendency to exclude is fostered by normal Tendency perceptual tendencies: perceptual 1. Social categorization 2. Evaluative judgments 3. Fundamental attribution error 4. Self-serving biases 5. Zero-sum thinking 6. Attributive projection 7. Just world thinking 49 49 Dimensions of Moral Exclusion Intensity Subtle (nearly invisible) Blatant (clearly observable) Engagement Active (participating) Passive (ignoring what is happening) Extent Narrow (focused on a particular few) Wide (involving masses of people) 50 50 Psychological Orientation of Psychological Those Who Exclude “THEM” Those Views the excluded as distant psychologically Lacks constructive moral obligations or Lacks responsibility toward the excluded responsibility Views “THEM” as nonentities, expendable and Views undeserving of fairness, resources or sacrifices to foster well-being to Approves of procedures and outcomes for Approves “THEM” that would be unacceptable for the ones inside their scope of justice inside 51 51 It Is Difficult To Detect Social It Injustice Because: Injustice 1. Social injustice does not surface as a Social moral issue. moral 2. Social injustice is hard to see up close. 3. Indecision and inaction abets social Indecision injustice. injustice. 4. Combating social injustice consumes Combating resources. resources. 52 52 To Foster Social Justice: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Welcome open dialogue and critique. Establish procedures that keep communication Establish channels open during increased conflict. channels Value pluralism and measured acceptance of Value the different. the Be alert to symptoms of moral exclusion. Challenge injustice constructively. 53 53 Racial Profiling Miami-Dade Racial Profiling Board Miami-Dade www.miamidade.gov/irp www.miamidade.gov/irp Tools for Tolerance for Law Enforcement www.toolsfortolerance.com www.toolsfortolerance.com Biased Based Policing Prevention Biased Investments in Training versus Data Investments Collection 54 54 Recommended Reading Christie, D.J., Wagner, R.V. and Winter, D.D. (Eds.), 2001. Peace, Conflict, and Violence: Peace Psychology for the 21st Century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 21 Upper Deutsch, M. and Coleman, P.T. (Eds.), 2000. The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. San de Rivera, J. (Ed.), 2009. Handbook on Building Cultures of de Peace. New York, NY: Springer. New 55 55 Contact Information Dr. Eduardo I. Diaz, Executive Director Independent Review Panel 140 West Flagler Street, Suite 1101, Miami, FL 140 33130 33130 Tel# 305-375-4880 Fax# 305-375-4879 Email [email protected] Email [email protected] www.miamidade.gov/irp www.miamidade.gov/irp 56 56 ...
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