1 Feminist Psychology Development of Feminist Theories and Therapeutic Interventions By W. McIntosh & G. Green
2 Statistics US Bureau of Census (2000) • Number Females USA- 143,000,000 • Number of Males USA- 138,000,000
3 Statistics US Bureau of Census (2000) 47.5 48 48.5 49 49.5 50 50.5 51 51.5 Population MALE FEMALE
4 The Emergence of Feminist Psychology • Feminist psychology grew out of the influence of the women’s movement of the late 1960’s. It originated as a backlash against the traditional assumptions of male dominated theory, research and practices, especially in psychoanalytic theory .
5 Emergence • Freud’s theories, such as “ penis envy” and hysteria, which were gender-biased and based on developmental studies of men, were particularly distasteful to supporters of the feminist movement.
6 Emergence • Feminist Psychology was found by women who had become aware of the pressures of patriarchy, sexism and male chauvinism that therapy and counseling were not exempt from these pressures.
7 Emergence • Women discovered that they were put down in a number of subtle ways, and that all sorts of expectations about the female role and how it should be played were built in to the therapy process. Therefore, they started to set up their own therapy centers and their own network of therapists. In this way, a feminist therapy started to come into being.
8 Emergence • The feminist psychology movement was a grassroots one, and therefore, no one particular theorist can be named as primarily responsible for its development.
9 Raison d'être • 1. Traditionally accepted psychological theories and practices regarding mental health standards based on gender were harmful to women.
10 Raison d'être • 2. Women were labeled of as mentally ill for political reasons (punishing women for not adhering to expected roles) Women tended to be diagnosed as “mentally ill” when they didn’t conform to male stereotypes and protested the sexism of psychotherapy and psychotherapists
11 Raison d'être • 3.The womanless state of psychology and its development (including women being shut out and women’s work being underreported), and • 4. The desire to report women’s experiences from a woman’s perspective.
12 Feminist Therapy • Examines sociological as well as psychological factors • Helps people understand the impact of gender roles and power differences in society • A. Sex: biological difference • B. Gender: socially determined thoughts, beliefs and attitudes about men and women
13 Theories of Personality • Hare-Mustin and Maracek(1973) - two biases in the approach to gender • Alpha bias - separating men and women into two categories - danger is in treating women as different and therefore inferior • Beta bias - treating women and men as identical and ignoring real differences
14 Theory Development • Three distinct phases of development for feminist psychology have emerged, beginning in the 1970’s.
15 Phase 1 • The first phase was characterized by borrowing therapeutic techniques that fit into the feminist philosophy, with the goal to “empower all women by strengthening individual women.”