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Unformatted text preview: SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY OF PEACE, CONFLICT, AND VIOLENCE: PEACE PSYCHOLOGY DIVISION OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION The Division of Peace Psychology, established within the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1990, is a growing organization consisting of psychologists, students, and professional affiliates from diverse disciplines. 1 The specific goals of the Peace Division are: 1) to encourage psychological research, education, and 1) training on issues concerning peace, nonviolent conflict resolution, reconciliation, and the causes, consequences and prevention of war and other forms of destructive conflict; 2) to provide an organization that fosters communication among researchers, teachers, and practitioners who are working on peace issues; and 3) to apply the knowledge and the methods of psychology in the advancement of peace, non-violent conflict resolution, reconciliation, and the prevention of war and other forms of destructive conflict. war 2 Causes of Conflicts Causes Limited Resources (time, money, property) Unmet Basic Needs (security, identity, Unmet material necessities, self-determination) material Clashing Values (freedom versus equality) Beliefs (chosen people) Ideologies (capitalism versus communism) Levels of Conflict Levels Intrapersonal or Intrapsychic Intrapersonal (psychotherapist?) (psychotherapist?) Interpersonal (marriage counselor?) intragroup (leadership?) intergroup (diplomacy?) interstate (world government?) Dealing with Conflicts Dealing Negotiation Negotiation – Two or more parties working to resolve a Two conflict conflict Mediation – Parties in a conflict are assisted by a third party Arbitration – Settlement imposed by a third party Settlement a. Withdrawing (self-destructive behavior) b. Dominating (aggression) c. Submitting (depression) d. Engaging (healthy) e. Vascillating (anxiety) Responses to Conflict (psychological results) results) b a d b a c c Nature of Violence Nature Violence – The exertion of physical (or Violence or psychological) force that harms. psychological Direct Violence – That committed by identifiable Direct people on particular victims. people Structural Violence – Harm that comes from Structural subtle, gradual, systematized, normally accepted actions of particular social institutions where responsibility is blurred. (Determines who gets heard, who gets devalued and who gets resources.) resources.) Direct and Structural Violence manifest Direct differently but are interdependent differently 7 Examples of Direct Violence Hate crimes Ethnic cleansing Rape Murder War Police brutality 8 Examples of Structural Violence Poverty Unemployment Discrimination (Racism, sexism, etc.) Poor health care, schools or housing Racial profiling Corrupt political system Poor accountability for misuse of power Poor 9 Moral Exclusion Morals- Norms, rights, entitlements, obligations, Moralsresponsibilities and duties that shape our sense of justice and guide our behavior with others. of Moral Community- Those we value inside our Moral “scope of justice”, family, friends, compatriots and coreligionists. “US” and Morally Excludable- Strangers outside our scope Morally of justice and enemies. “THEM” of 10 10 Psychological Bases for Moral Psychological Exclusion Exclusion Tendency to exclude is fostered by normal Tendency perceptual tendencies: perceptual 1. Social categorization 2. Evaluative judgments 3. Fundamental attribution error 4. Self-serving biases 5. Zero-sum thinking 6. Attributive projection 7. Just world thinking 11 11 To Foster Social Justice: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Welcome open dialogue and critique. Establish procedures that keep communication Establish channels open during increased conflict. channels Value pluralism and measured acceptance of Value the different. the Be alert to symptoms of moral exclusion. Challenge injustice constructively. 12 12 Recommended Reading Christie, D.J., Wagner, R.V. and Winter, D.D. (Eds.), 2001. Peace, Conflict, and Violence: Peace Psychology for the 21st Century. Upper Saddle River, and Upper NJ: Prentice Hall. Deutsch, M. and Coleman, P.T. & Marcus, E.C. (Eds.) (2006). The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice. San Francisco, CA: JosseySan Bass. de Rivera, J. (Ed.), 2009. Handbook on Building Cultures of Peace. New York, de NY: Springer. NY: MacNair, R.M. (2003). The Psychology of Peace: An Introduction. Westport, MacNair, The Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. CT: Mayton, D.M. (2009). Nonviolence and Peace Psychology: Intrapersonal, Mayton, Interpersonal, Societal, and World Peace. New York: Springer. Interpersonal, 13 13 Credits The following psychologists contributed to development of this PowerPoint presentation: Dan Christie, Joe deRivera, Eduardo Diaz, and Linden Nelson. For more information about peace psychology, please visit <>. 14 14 ...
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