Psy 100 - Principles of Psychology Psychology 100...

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Unformatted text preview: Principles of Psychology Psychology 100 University of Michigan-Flint Thomas A. Wrobel, Ph.D. Spring 2003 Chapter One Psychology: The Study of Mental Processes and Behavior I. Biopsychology Biopsychology seeks to understand the mind through understanding the biological activity of the brain Localization of function is the notion that discrete brain regions control discrete aspects of mental functioning Lesions of neural pathways alter behavior in animal studies Humans with focal brain damage show evidence of impairment of language Broca noted that damage to the left front hemisphere impairs the ability to speak language Damage to Brocas area produces difficulty in speaking Damage to Wernickes area results in difficulty in language comprehension Cultural Influences and Psychology Culture refers to the influence of membership in a larger group such as a tribe or nation A society is not simply the summation of the individuals that make up the society Rather, culture impacts psychological functioning of individuals within the society Philosophical Issues of Psychology Free will versus determinism? Nature versus nurture? Rationalism versus empiricism? Reason versus emotion? Continuity versus discontinuity with other animals? Individualism versus relationality? Conscious versus unconscious? Mental versus physical Early Psychological Science Wilhelm Wundt: Proponent of structuralism Established the first psychological laboratory Wundt used the method of introspection to examine mental processes Observers were trained to provide verbal reports of their psychological processes Wundt sought to define the structure of consciousness William James: Proponent of functionalism Functionalism argued that consciousness is functional and serves a purpose II.Perspectives in Psychology Any psychological issue can be approached using a number of perspectives Psychodynamic Perspective The psychodynamic view posits that conscious and unconscious forces interact to control our thoughts and behaviors Behavior is an interplay between thoughts, feelings, and wishes Some mental events are unconscious Mental processes can conflict, resulting in anxiety Behaviorist Perspective Behaviorist view is that learning plays a role in acquiring and maintaining behaviors Conditioning in which stimuli are associated Restaurant is paired with bad news that leads to anxiety Pairing of novel flavor with illness leads to taste aversion Conditioning in which behaviors have consequences: Positive consequences are reinforcing Negative consequences are punishing Cognitive Perspective The Cognitive view focuses on how people process, store, and retrieve information Evolutionary Perspective...
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2011 for the course PSY270 d54633 taught by Professor Hall during the Spring '05 term at University of Phoenix.

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Psy 100 - Principles of Psychology Psychology 100...

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