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Chemistry Learning Objectives

Chemistry Learning Objectives - A Z Chemistry Learning...

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A Z Chemistry Learning Objectives Chapter 1 Matter—Its Properties and Measurement 1. Determine the number of significant figures in a number and express the result of a calculation with the appropriate number of significant figures. All nonzero digits are significant (1) zeros before the decimal point, or (2) zeros following the decimal point and preceding the first nonzero digit are not significant terminal zeros that precede the decimal in numbers greater than one are ambiguous (ie. 7500m – 2 sig figs) Ex. 0 . 0 0 4 0 0 4 5 0 0 (7 sig figs - Bold = not significant) When multiplying or dividing…the final answer may only contain as many sig figs as the least precisely known quantity in the calculation (ie. 14.79 x 12.11 x 5.05 = 904) When adding or subtracting…the final answer must have the same number of digits after the decimal point as the quantity carrying the smallest number of such digits (ie. 15.02+9986.0+3.518=10,004.5) 2. Express numbers in scientific notation. Ex. Express 14,775.098 in 3 sig figs = 1.48x10 4 3. Write a conversion factor from a relationship between two quantities, and use conversion factors to solve problems; e.g. density = mass/volume. Kelvin from Celsius T(K)=t(C) +273.15 Fahrenheit from Celsius 9/5 x t(C) + 32 Celsius from Fahrenheit 5/9 x [t(F) – 32] Density(d)=Mass(m)/Volume(V) – Mass & Volume are Extensive Properties because they depend on the quantity of matter. Density is an Intensive Property because it is independent of the amount of matter involved. Conversion Pathway: relating units to map out solutions Ex. Find the mass of a cube of osmium that is 1.25 in. on edge, and a density of 22.59g/cm 3 . in. osmium cm osmium cm 3 osmium g osmium ? g Osmium = [1.25 in. x 2.54 cm] 3 x 22.59 g/cm 3 = 723 g 4. Solve algebraic equations that arise in the course of working chemistry problems.
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Chapter 2 Atoms and the Atomic Theory 1. What are the numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons present in given atoms, (using the symbolism E ) and how can isotopes and ions of an element be identified? A =
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