NRS 428VN WEEK 2 DQ 3 AN OVERVIEW OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS.docx - AN OVERVIEW OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS An Assignment in NRS 428VN-0102(Concepts in

NRS 428VN WEEK 2 DQ 3 AN OVERVIEW OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS.docx

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AN OVERVIEW OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS An Assignment in NRS 428VN-0102 (Concepts in Community and Public Health) Submitted by MORADEKE OKUNOYE
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April, 2020. Introduction Communicable diseases are now prevalent in society, affecting people in both developed and underdeveloped countries. The diseases also known as infectious or contagious diseases are “illnesses caused by viruses or bacteria that spread from one person to one another through contact with contaminated surfaces, bodily fluids, blood products, insect bites, or through the air” (Edemekong and Huang, 2019). There are many communicable diseases, which upon infecting a new host (person or animal) releases their toxins that weaken the host’s immune system thereby causing the manifestation of signs and symptoms of the diseases. The nurse, as a key proponent in the prevention of illnesses and diseases, must have a sound understanding of the communicable disease, its mode of infection and progression. Some communicable diseases are really infectious requiring “reporting to appropriate health departments/government agencies in the locality of the outbreak” (Edemekong and Huang, 2019). Tuberculosis (TB) is an example of reportable communicable diseases that affects the lungs, central nervous system, kidneys, and lymphatics. However, this paper will focus on TB of the lungs (Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB)) as a communicable disease, its transmission, demographics, epidemiological triangle, agencies/organization addressing TB, roles of community health nurse in breaking the chains of the disease progressions and other issues pertaining to TB. Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB). PTB is one of the oldest communicable diseases of the lungs. It is an “airborne bacterial infection caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis which spread from person to person when an infected individual Coughs/sneezes/talks or spits out the bacteria, spreading it
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through the air to be breath in by another person” (American Lung Association, 2020). “Tuberculosis is a deadly infectious disease worldwide, with more than 10 million people becoming newly sick from it each year” (Furin, Cox, & Pai, 2020). Despite it being preventable, 1.5 million people die from TB each year – making it the world’s top infectious killer” (World Health Organization, (WHO), 2019). Most TB infected individuals live in a “low –middle- income countries like Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, and South Africa” (WHO, 2020). In 2019, 8,920 of provisionally TB cases were reported (a rate of 2.7 per 100,000 persons) in 60 jurisdictions in the United States” (Center for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC), 2019). This really shows that developed countries are not exempted from the outbreak of TB Signs and symptoms of PTB For early diagnosis and effective treatment or care of a TB patient, the nurse must be familiar with the signs and symptoms. An infected person can either have a latent or active TB infection. Individuals with latent TB infection never develop TB signs/symptoms, as the TB bacteria remain inactive for a lifetime without causing disease. The person does not feel sick and
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