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AN OVERVIEW OF PULMONARYTUBERCULOSISAn Assignment in NRS 428VN-0102 (Concepts in Community and Public Health) Submitted by MORADEKE OKUNOYE
April, 2020.IntroductionCommunicable diseases are now prevalent in society, affecting people in both developedand underdeveloped countries. The diseases also known as infectious or contagious diseases are“illnesses caused by viruses or bacteria that spread from one person to one another throughcontact with contaminated surfaces, bodily fluids, blood products, insect bites, or through theair” (Edemekong and Huang, 2019). There are many communicable diseases, which uponinfecting a new host (person or animal) releases their toxins that weaken the host’s immunesystem thereby causing the manifestation of signs and symptoms of the diseases. The nurse, as akey proponent in the prevention of illnesses and diseases, must have a sound understanding ofthe communicable disease, its mode of infection and progression. Some communicable diseases are really infectious requiring “reporting to appropriatehealth departments/government agencies in the locality of the outbreak” (Edemekong andHuang, 2019). Tuberculosis (TB) is an example of reportable communicable diseases that affectsthe lungs, central nervous system, kidneys, and lymphatics. However, this paper will focus onTB of the lungs (Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB)) as a communicable disease, its transmission,demographics, epidemiological triangle, agencies/organization addressing TB, roles ofcommunity health nurse in breaking the chains of the disease progressions and other issuespertaining to TB.Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB).PTB is one of the oldest communicable diseases of the lungs. It is an “airborne bacterialinfection caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosiswhich spread from person toperson when an infected individual Coughs/sneezes/talks or spits out the bacteria, spreading it
through the air to be breath in by another person” (American Lung Association, 2020).“Tuberculosis is a deadly infectious disease worldwide, with more than 10 million peoplebecoming newly sick from it each year” (Furin, Cox, & Pai, 2020). Despite it being preventable,1.5 million people die from TB each year – making it the world’s top infectious killer” (WorldHealth Organization, (WHO), 2019). Most TB infected individuals live in a “low –middle-income countries like Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, andSouth Africa” (WHO, 2020). In 2019, “8,920 of provisionally TB cases were reported (a rate of2.7 per 100,000 persons) in 60jurisdictions in the United States” (Center for Diseases Preventionand Control (CDC), 2019). This really shows that developed countries are not exempted from theoutbreak of TBSigns and symptoms of PTBFor early diagnosis and effective treatment or care of a TB patient, the nurse must befamiliar with the signs and symptoms. An infected person can either have a latent or active TBinfection. Individuals with latent TB infection never develop TB signs/symptoms, as the TBbacteria remain inactive for a lifetime without causing disease. The person does not feel sick and